iMRS 2000 - PEMF Publications
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PEMF Publications

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501

Exposure of salivary gland cells to low-frequency electromagnetic fields alters polypeptide synthesis

This study demonstrates that exposure of cells to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields can cause measurable changes in protein synthesis. Sciara coprophila salivary gland cells were exposed to five low-frequency (1.5-72 Hz) electromagnetic signals: three signals (1.5, 15, and 72 Hz) produced pulsed asymmetric electromagnetic fields and two signals (60 and 72 Hz) were sinusoidal. Subsequent analyses of two-dimensional gels showed that cell exposure to either type of low-frequency electromagnetic field resulted in both qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein synthesis. Thus, signals producing diverse waveform characteristics induced previously undetectable polypeptides, some of which were signal specific and augmented or suppressed other polypeptides as compared with nonexposed cells. The pattern of polypeptide synthesis differed from that seen with heat shock: only five polypeptides in cells exposed to electromagnetic signals overlap those polypeptides exposed to heat shock, and the suppression of protein synthesis characteristic of heat shock does not occur.

502

Exposure of workers to pulsed gradients in MRI

PURPOSE: To numerically evaluate the electric field/current density magnitudes and spatial distributions in healthcare workers when they are standing close to the gradient coil windings near the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner ends. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anatomically realistic, whole-body male and female voxel phantoms are engaged to model the workers at various positions near the ends of three cylindrical gradient coils (x-, y-, and z-axis gradients). The numerical calculations of induced fields are based on an efficient, quasistatic finite-difference method. RESULTS: The simulations show that it is possible to induce electric fields/current densities above levels recommended by the International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards when the workers are standing close to the gradient coils and when two or three gradients are switched simultaneously, as is often the case. CONCLUSION: The longitudinal gradient tends to induce more fields in workers than the transverse coils. The strongest levels of field exposure are observed when all three gradients are operated simultaneously and can be above regulations when the healthcare worker is close to the gradient coils. Other postures such as bending into the magnet shall be investigated in further studies.

503

Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients

BACKGROUND: Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in snails, rodents and healthy human volunteers. OBJECTIVE: The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used. METHOD: The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure (less than or equal to 400 microTpk; less than 3 kHz) on pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ], visual analogue scale [VAS]) and anxiety (VAS) ratings in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=13; mean age 52 years) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients (n=18; mean age 51 years) who received either the PEMF or sham exposure treatment. RESULTS: A repeated measures analysis revealed a significant pre-post-testing by condition interaction for the MPQ Pain Rating Index total for the RA patients, F(1,11)=5.09, P<0.05, estimate of effect size = 0.32, power = 0.54. A significant pre-post-effect for the same variable was present for the FM patients, F(1,15)=16.2, P<0.01, estimate of effect size = 0.52, power =0.96. Similar findings were found for MPQ subcomponents and the VAS (pain). There was no significant reduction in VAS anxiety ratings pre- to post-exposure for either the RA or FM patients. CONCLUSION: These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

504

Exposure to ELF magnetic field tuned to Zn inhibits growth of cancer cells

The effects of ELF alternating magnetic fields tuned to Zn2+ on the growth of cancer cells with different status of p53 were investigated using a cell proliferation assay. Human cancer cells HeLa (cervix cancer, p53+/+), Saos-2 and Saos-2-His-273 (osteosarcoma, p53-/- and p53 His-273 mutant, respectively), H1299tTA and H1299tTA-His175 (lung carcinoma, p53 -/- and p53 His-175 mutant), and normal human fibroblasts VH-10 (p53+/+) were used. exposure parameters for character in for the first harmonic of Zn2+ based either on the magnetic parametric resonance (MPR) model of Lednev or the ion parametric resonance (IPR) model of Blanchard and Blackman. ELF exposure was for 72 and 96 h. The vertical alternating field was 20 Hz at amplitudes of either 38.7 or 77.4 ?T (peaks, IPR or MPR, respectively). the vertical static magnet field was 43 ?T, and the horizontal static magnetic field was zeroed. Treatments of cells with PRIMA-1 and gamma-rays were used as positive controls. growth inhibition was observed in cells after exposure to ELF at 38.7 ?T. Inhibition of HeLa, VH-10, and Saos-2-His-273 cells was statistically significant, p + 0.0003, 0.02, and 0.006, respectively. No consistent ELF effects following exposure 77.4 ?T were seen. PRIMA-1 inhibitied the growth of all cell lines with the strongest effect in mutant p53-carrying cell line H1299tTA-His 175. The effects of gamma-rays were relatively weak, suggesting that the cell proliferation assay under conditions employed in this study are not very sensitive to apoptosis. In conclusion, ELF under conditions of exposure tuned to Zn2+ according tot he IPR model inhibited the growth of cancer and normal cells. No clear relationship of the observed growth inhibition to p53 status was found. Further experiments, using complementary techniques, are required to test whether p53 activation by ELF is feasible.

505

Exposure to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increases interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

The exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) increased both the spontaneous and the PHA- and TPA-induced production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6. Our results suggest that cells of the monocytic lineage, which are good producers of both IL-1 and IL-6, can be important cellular targets for PEMFs. Taking into account that these cytokines are among the most pleiotropic ones, these data can help us understand the previous reported effects of PEMFs on the proliferation of human lymphocytes and the effects exerted by such fields on cartilage and bone cells, whose physiological activity is highly dependent on IL-1 and IL-6.

506

Exposure to low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increases mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in Down's syndrome

We previously reported that exposure of human mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) could restore the defective proliferative capability of PBL from aged subjects. The effects of exposure to PEMFs were studied in PBL from 25 patients with Down's syndrome (DS), a syndrome of premature aging characterized by precocious immune system derangement, including age-related defective PBL proliferative capability. PBL were stimulated with different doses of phytohemagglutinin, and cell proliferation was assessed by measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. After PEMF-exposure, a significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in cells from DS children and young adults, but it was much more evident in PBL from relatively aged DS patients. The age-related effect of PEMFs on DS lymphocytes demonstrates that age must be considered a major variable when studies on DS are performed, and confirms that DS must be regarded as a syndrome of accelerated aging.

507

Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. Healthy, young male subjects were exposed for 30 min to EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) during the waking period preceding sleep. Compared with the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the EEG in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 9.75-11.25 Hz and 12.5-13.25 Hz band during the initial part of sleep. These changes correspond to those obtained in a previous study where EMF was intermittently applied during sleep. Unilateral exposure induced no hemispheric asymmetry of EEG power. The present results demonstrate that exposure during waking modifies the EEG during subsequent sleep. Thus the changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency EMF outlast the exposure period.

508

Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG.

Changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields outlast the exposure period. This is a study on the deleterious effects of radio telephone handsets on brain physiology.

509

Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields enhances motor recovery in cats after spinal cord injury

STUDY DESIGN: Animal model study of eight healthy commercial cats was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pulsed electromagnetic field (PMF) stimulation results in improvement of function after contusive spinal cord injury in cats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: PMF stimulation has been shown to enhance nerve growth, regeneration, and functional recovery of peripheral nerves. Little research has been performed examining the effects of PMF stimulation on the central nervous system and no studies of PMF effects on in vivo spinal cord injury (SCI) models have been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMF stimulation was noninvasively applied for up to 12 weeks to the midthoracic spine of cats with acute contusive spinal cord injury. The injury was produced using a weight-drop apparatus. Motor functions were evaluated with the modified Tarlov assessment scale. Morphologic analyses of the injury sites and somatosensory-evoked potential measurements were conducted to compare results between PMF-stimulated and control groups. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in locomotor recovery between the PMF-stimulated and control groups. Although not statistically significant, PMF-stimulated spinal cords demonstrated greater sparing of peripheral white matter and smaller lesion volumes compared to controls. Somatosensory-evoked potential measurements indicated that the PMF-stimulated group had better recovery of preinjury waveforms than the control group; however, this observation also was not statistically significant because of the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study indicates that pulsed magnetic fields may have beneficial effects on motor function recovery and lesion volume size after acute spinal cord injury.

510

Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields in the treatment of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients--a pilot, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial

A pilot, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to study the effect of exposure to pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) on the rate of healing of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients was undertaken. Twenty patients were randomly allocated to receive standard wound-care treatment (controls) and 20 others received standard treatment plus exposure to PMF (sinusoidal form, 0.95 to 1.05 Hz, amplitude +/- 2400 nano Teslas) (study group) for four weeks. Assessment of the outcome of treatment was based on the volume of ulcers, calculated from the maximal length, breadth and depth of the ulcer recorded on the day of admission, at one and two weeks and at the end of treatment. The analysis of the results was based on 15 control patients and 18 PMF patients after deletion of four patients due to irregularity in attendance and three others on account of suspected malignancy of the ulcers. In the control group, the geometric mean volumes of the ulcers were 2843 and 1478 cu mm on the day of admission and at the end of the treatment (P = 0.03); the corresponding values in the PMF group were 2428 and 337 cu mm, respectively (P < 0.001). A decrease in the volume of 40% or more was observed in 53% of control patients and 89% of PMF patients (P = 0.02); a decrease of 80% or more was observed in none of the controls and in 33% of PMF patients. These findings strongly suggest that exposure to PMF causes a significantly more rapid healing of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients.

511

Exposure to strong static magnetic field slows the growth of human cancer cells in vitro

Proposals to enhance the amount of radiation dose delivered to small tumors with radioimmunotherapy by constraining emitted electrons with very strong homogeneous static magnetic fields has renewed interest in the cellular effects of prolonged exposures to such fields. Past investigations have not studied the effects on tumor cell growth of lengthy exposures to very high magnetic fields. Three malignant human cell lines, HTB 63 (melanoma), HTB 77 IP3 (ovarian carcinoma), and CCL 86 (lymphoma: Raji cells), were exposed to a 7 Tesla uniform static magnetic field for 64 hours. Following exposure, the number of viable cells in each group was determined. In addition, multicycle flow cytometry was performed on all cell lines, and pulsed-field electrophoresis was performed solely on Raji cells to investigate changes in cell cycle patterns and the possibility of DNA fragmentation induced by the magnetic field. A 64 h exposure to the magnetic field produced a reduction in viable cell number in each of the three cell lines. Reductions of 19.04 +/- 7.32%, 22.06 +/- 6.19%, and 40.68 +/- 8.31% were measured for the melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, and lymphoma cell lines, respectively, vs. control groups not exposed to the magnetic field. Multicycle flow cytometry revealed that the cell cycle was largely unaltered. Pulsed-field electrophoresis analysis revealed no increase in DNA breaks related to magnetic field exposure. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to a very strong magnetic field appeared to inhibit the growth of three human tumor cell lines in vitro. The mechanism underlying this effect has not, as yet, been identified, although alteration of cell growth cycle and gross fragmentation of DNA have been excluded as possible contributory factors. Future investigations of this phenomenon may have a significant impact on the future understanding and treatment of cancer.

512

Extended Fano model of Extraordinary Electromagnetic Transmission through subwavelength hole arrays in the terahertz domain

We developed an extended Fano model describing the Extraordinary Electromagnetic Transmission (EET) through arrays of subwavelength apertures, based on terahertz transmission measurements of arrays of various hole size and shapes. Considering a frequency-dependent coupling between resonant and non-resonant pathways, this model gives access to a simple analytical description of EET, provides good agreement with experimental data, and offers new parameters describing the influence of the hole size and shape on the transmitted signal.

513

Extracellular release of recombinant alpha-amylase from Escherichia coli using pulsed electric field

It is difficult for Escherichia coli to secrete products such as recombinant enzymes, because the Gram-negative bacterium has a double membrane structure and so some of the products are accumulated in a periplasmic space. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant alpha-amylase can be released from recombinant E. coli HB101/pHI301A during cultivation by applying a pulsed electric field (PEF). When a PEF (12 kV, 2 Hz) was applied for 30 min with an interval of 30 min from the point of OD660=0.7, the amount of released alpha-amylase was about 30% of the total amount of alpha-amylase produced in the cells. As a result of SDS-PAGE and activity staining analyses, it was confirmed that the released proteins were not all of the intracellular proteins, and the alpha-amylase, which was identical with intracellular alpha-amylase, was released by applied PEF cultivation. PEF treatment could be useful for easy release of periplasmic protein with selectivity.

514

Extraction and validation of correlation lengths from interstitial velocity fields using diffusion-weighted MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging methods sensitive to individual molecular displacements (q-space MRI) provide a convenient means of measuring dispersion in complex interstitial spaces. Pressure-driven flow experiments through a water-saturated packed bed phantom have been conducted to prove the feasibility of using q-space MRI to measure the coherence length associated with the interstitial velocity field. The method involves measuring the dependence of the apparent dispersion coefficient on the distance along the mean flow by repeating a small number of pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo experiments with increasing gradient pulse separation times. Assuming homogeneous interstitial flow statistics inside the averaging volume, an integral spatial scale characterizing the Eulerian velocity auto-correlation coefficient is extracted via a stochastic convective model. The validity of the a priori statistical description of interstitial flow is verified by comparing with an independent MRI measurement of the Eulerian velocity field using phase contrast methods in the same phantom with pore-level resolution. The integral length scale obtained via q-space MRI agrees with the mean pore size in the present as well as in similar phantoms found in the literature. This method has direct applicability in the quantification of the interstitial morphology of fluid-saturated porous media with resolution independent of voxel size, assuming "perfectly reflecting pore walls" (no surface relaxation) and no contribution to the MR signal from outside the pore space.

515

Extremely low frequency (ELF) pulsed-gradient magnetic fields inhibit malignant tumour growth at different biological levels

Extremely low frequency (ELF) pulsed-gradient magnetic field (with the maximum intensity of 0.6-2.0 T, gradient of 10-100 T.M(-1), pulse width of 20-200 ms and frequency of 0.16-1.34 Hz treatment of mice can inhibit murine malignant tumour growth, as seen from analyses at different hierarchical levels, from organism, organ, to tissue, and down to cell and macromolecules. Such magnetic fields induce apoptosis of cancer cells, and arrest neoangiogenesis, preventing a supply developing to the tumour. The growth of sarcomas might be amenable to such new method of treatment.

516

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields activate the ERK cascade, increase hsp70 protein levels and promote regeneration in Planaria

Purpose: To use regenerating Planaria Dugesia dorotocethala as a model to determine whether an intermittent modulated extremely low frequency electro-magnetic field (ELF-EMF) produces elevated levels of the heat shock protein hsp70 and stimulates intracellular pathways known to be involved in injury and repair. We focused on serum response element (SRE) binding through the extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Materials and methods: Planaria were transected equidistant between the tip of the head and the tip of the tail. Individual head and tail portions from the same worm were exposed to a 60 Hertz 80 milliGauss ELF-EMF for 1 h twice daily for 15 days post-transection under carefully controlled exposure conditions. The regenerating heads and tails were photographed and the lengths measured at three-day intervals. In other experiments, the timing of the appearance of pigmented eyes was monitored in the tail portion at 12-h intervals following transection in both ELF-EMF exposed and sham control. In some experiments protein lysates were analysed for hsp70 levels, doubly phosphorylated (pp)-ERK, Elk-1 kinase activity and serum response factor (SRF)-SRE binding. Results: ELF-EMF exposure during the initial 3-days post-surgery caused a significant increase in regeneration for both heads and tails, but especially tails. The first appearance of eyes occurred at day seven post-transection in tail portions exposed to ELF-EMF. In the sham control tail samples the initial appearance of eyes occurred 48 h later. Concurrently, ELF-EMF-exposed heads and tails exhibited an elevation in the level of hsp70 protein, an activation of an ERK cascade, and an increase in SRF-SRE binding. Conclusion: Exposures to a modulated sinusoidal ELF-EMF were delivered by a Helmholtz configuration at a frequency of 60 Hz and 80 mG twice a day for one hour. This is accompanied by an increase in hsp70 protein levels, activation of specific kinases and upregulation of transcription factors that are generally associated with repair processes.

517

Extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields promote neutrophil extension, metabolic resonance and DNA damage when phase-matched with metabolic oscillators

Application of extremely low frequency pulsed DC electric fields that are frequency- and phase-matched with endogenous metabolic oscillations leads to greatly exaggerated neutrophil extension and metabolic resonance wherein oscillatory NAD(P)H amplitudes are increased. In the presence of a resonant field, migrating cell length grows from 10 to approximately 40 microm, as does the overall length of microfilament assemblies. In contrast, cells stop locomotion and become spherical when exposed to phase-mismatched fields. Although cellular effects were not found to be dependent on electrode type and buffer, they were sensitive to temporal constraints (phase and pulse length) and cell surface charge. We suggest an electromechanical coupling hypothesis wherein applied electric fields and cytoskeletal polymerization forces act together to overcome the surface/cortical tension of neutrophils, thus promoting net cytoskeletal assembly and heightened metabolic amplitudes. Metabolic resonance enhances reactive oxygen metabolic production by neutrophils. Furthermore, cellular DNA damage was observed after prolonged metabolic resonance using both single cell gel electrophoresis ('comet' assay) and 3'-OH DNA labeling using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. These results provide insights into transmembrane signal processing and cell interactions with weak electric fields.

518

Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field designed for antinociception does not affect microvascular responsiveness to the vasodilator acetylcholine

A 225 microT, extremely low frequency, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) that was designed for the induction of antinociception, was tested for its effectiveness to influence blood flow within the skeletal microvasculature of a male Sprague-Dawley rat model (n = 103). Acetylcholine (0.1, 1.0, or 10 mM) was used to perturb normal blood flow and to delineate differential effects of the PEMF, based on degree of vessel dilation. After both 30 and 60 min of PEMF exposure, we report no effects on peak perfusion response to acetylcholine (with only 0.2% of the group difference attributed to exposure). Spectral analysis of blood flow data was generated to obtain information related to myogenic activity (0.15-0.40 Hz), respiratory rate (0.4-2.0 Hz), and heart rate (2.0-7.0 Hz), including the peak frequency within each of the three frequency regions identified above, peak power, full width at half maximum (FWHM), and mean within band. No significant effects due to exposure were observed on myogenic activity of examined blood vessels, or on heart rate parameters. Anesthesia-induced respiratory depression was, however, significantly reduced following PEMF exposure compared to shams (although exposure only accounted for 9.4% of the group difference). This set of data suggest that there are no significant acute physiological effects of 225 microT PEMF after 30 and 60 min of exposure on peak blood flow, heart rate, and myogenic activity, but perhaps a small attenuation effect on anesthetic-induced respiratory depression. Bioelectromagnetics, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

519

Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of 3H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered.

520

Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase interleukin-2 (IL-2) utilization and IL-2 receptor expression in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes from old subjects

The effects of the exposure of mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes from aged subjects to low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) were studied by measuring the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the expression of IL-2 receptor. PEMF-exposed cultures that presented increased [3H]thymidine incorporation showed lower amounts of IL-2 in their supernatants, but higher percentages of IL-2 receptor-positive cells and of T-activated lymphocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that PEMFs were able to modulate mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by provoking an increase in utilization of IL-2, most likely acting on the expression of its receptor on the plasma membrane.

521

Extremely low-frequency 7 Hz 100 microTesla electromagnetic radiation promotes differentiation in the human epithelial cell line HaCaT

This study provides strong support for the efficacy of 7 Hz 100 microTesla therapy for the treatment of skin diseases as well as a co-adjuvant in the therapy of undifferentiated skin diseases. (2 hours per day)

522

Extremely low-frequency module static magnetic fields to treat cancer: A pilot study on patients with advanced neoplasm to assess safety and acute toxicity

Results of a toxicity pilot human study approved by the competent ethical Committee are reported. Eleven patients with heavily pre-treated advanced cancer were enrolled in a pilot study with different schedules of time exposure to static magnetic fields (MF), amplitude modulated by ELF. An area including the neck, thoracic and abdomen was MF exposed daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks according to two different schedules: 20 min daily (4 patients) and 70 min daily (7 patients). ECOG performance status was 1 (2 patients), 2 (8 patients), 3 (1 patient). Toxicity was assessed according toWHOcriteria. ECG, Chest X-ray, physical examination, blood cell count and complete blood chemistry were performed before and at the end of the treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (grade 2 toxicity) in 1 patient and microscopic urinary abnormalities in 5 patients were the only negative effects observed. We conclude that MF can be safely administrated according to the MF exposure schedules. Bioelectromagnetics 25:563–571,

524

Fast MRI coil analysis based on 3-D electromagnetic and RF circuit co-simulation

To accelerate the analysis of a multi-element MRI coil, a two-way link is used between radiofrequency (RF) circuit and 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools. In this configuration, only one 3-D EM simulation is required to investigate the coil performance over a range of different tunings, saving considerable computation time. For the purpose of 3-D EM simulation, the coil feed networks and trim capacitors are substituted by 50Omega ports. The entire coil was tuned in the RF circuit domain, and the near-field profiles of the electric and magnetic field components were then calculated, together with the specific energy absorption ratio (SAR) maps in the 3-D EM domain.

525

Fast realistic modeling in bioelectromagnetism using lead-field interpolation

The practical use of realistic models in bioelectromagnetism is limited by the time-consuming amount of numerical calculations. We propose a method leading to much higher speed than currently available, and compatible with any kind of numerical methods (boundary elements (BEM), finite elements, finite differences). Illustrated with the BEM for EEG and MEG, it applies to ECG and MCG as well. The principle is two-fold. First, a Lead-Field matrix is calculated (once for all) for a grid of dipoles covering the brain volume. Second, any forward solution is interpolated from the pre-calculated Lead-Fields corresponding to grid dipoles near the source. Extrapolation is used for shallow sources falling outside the grid. Three interpolation techniques were tested: trilinear, second-order Bezier (Bernstein polynomials), and 3D spline. The trilinear interpolation yielded the highest speed gain, with factors better than x10,000 for a 9,000-triangle BEM model. More accurate results could be obtained with the Bezier interpolation (speed gain approximately 1,000), which, combined with a 8-mm step grid, lead to intrinsic localization and orientation errors of only 0.2 mm and 0.2 degrees. Further improvements in MEG could be obtained by interpolating only the contribution of secondary currents. Cropping grids by removing shallow points lead to a much better estimation of the dipole orientation in EEG than when solving the forward problem classically, providing an efficient alternative to locally refined models. This method would show special usefulness when combining realistic models with stochastic inverse procedures (simulated annealing, genetic algorithms) requiring many forward calculations.

526

Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. METHODS: A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. RESULTS: Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. CONCLUSION: The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public.

527

Features of anti-inflammatory effects of modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation

Using a model of acute zymosan-induced paw edema in NMRI mice, we test the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) can be essentially modified by application of pulse modulation with certain frequencies. It has been revealed that a single exposure of animals to continuous EHF EMR for 20 min reduced the exudative edema of inflamed paw on average by 19% at intensities of 0.1-0.7 mW/cm(2) and frequencies from the range of 42.2-42.6 GHz. At fixed effective carrier frequency of 42.2 GHz, the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR did not depend on modulation frequencies, that is, application of different modulation frequencies from the range of 0.03-100 Hz did not lead to considerable changes in the effect level. On the contrary, at "ineffective" carrier frequencies of 43.0 and 61.22 GHz, the use of modulation frequencies of 0.07-0.1 and 20-30 Hz has allowed us to restore the effect up to a maximal level. The results obtained show the critical dependence of anti-inflammatory action of low-intensity EHF EMR on carrier and modulation frequencies. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of changing the level of expected biological effect of modulated EMR by a special selection of combination of carrier and modulation frequencies is confirmed.

528

Fermi condensates for dynamic imaging of electromagnetic fields

Ultracold gases provide micrometer size samples whose sensitivity to external fields may be exploited in sensor applications. Bose-Einstein condensates of atomic gases have been demonstrated to perform excellently as magnetic field sensors in atom chips. Here we propose that condensates of fermions can be used for noninvasive sensing of time-dependent and static magnetic and electric fields, by utilizing the tunable energy gap in the excitation spectrum as a frequency filter. Perturbations by the field create collective excitations and quasiparticles. The latter requires the frequency of the perturbation to exceed the gap. The frequencies of the field may be selectively monitored from the amount of quasiparticles which is measurable, e.g., by rf spectroscopy. We analyze the method by calculating the density-density susceptibility and discuss its sensitivity and spatial resolution.

529

Field inversion gel electrophoresis in denaturing polyacrylamide gels

The velocities of single stranded DNA molecules in denaturing polyacrylamide gels during symmetric and asymmetric field inversion were measured at different pulse times and gel concentrations. Under the conditions chosen in our study, pulse times as short as a few milliseconds lead to a retardation of DNA molecules larger than 400 bases. We found that a field inversion with an electric field in the forward direction of about double the strength of that applied in the backward direction is a good compromise between the degree of retardation, the temperature control requirements and the run time of the gel.

530

Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for modeling the effect of switched gradients on the human body in MRI

Numerical modeling of the eddy currents induced in the human body by the pulsed field gradients in MRI presents a difficult computational problem. It requires an efficient and accurate computational method for high spatial resolution analyses with a relatively low input frequency. In this article, a new technique is described which allows the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to be efficiently applied over a very large frequency range, including low frequencies. This is not the case in conventional FDTD-based methods. A method of implementing streamline gradients in FDTD is presented, as well as comparative analyses which show that the correct source injection in the FDTD simulation plays a crucial rule in obtaining accurate solutions. In particular, making use of the derivative of the input source waveform is shown to provide distinct benefits in accuracy over direct source injection. In the method, no alterations to the properties of either the source or the transmission media are required. The method is essentially frequency independent and the source injection method has been verified against examples with analytical solutions. Results are presented showing the spatial distribution of gradient-induced electric fields and eddy currents in a complete body model.

531

First cell cycles of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus are dramatically impaired by exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field

Exposure of fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus to an electromagnetic field of 75-Hz frequency and low amplitudes (from 0.75 to 2.20 mT of magnetic component) leads to a dramatic loss of synchronization of the first cell cycle, with formation of anomalous embryos linked to irregular separation of chromatids during the mitotic events. Because acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) is thought to regulate the embryonic first developmental events of the sea urchin, its enzymatic activity was assayed in embryo homogenates and decreased by 48% when the homogenates were exposed to the same pulsed field. This enzymatic inactivation had a threshold of about 0.75 +/- 0.01 mT. The same field threshold was found for the effect on the formation of anomalous embryos of P. lividus. Moreover, ACHE inhibitors seem to induce the same teratological effects as those caused by the field, while blockers of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are able to antagonize those effects. We conclude that one of the main causes of these dramatic effects on the early development of the sea urchin by field exposure could be the accumulation of ACh due to ACHE inactivation. The crucial role of the membrane in determining the conditions for enzyme inactivation is discussed.

532

Fixed and pulsed gradient diffusion methods in low-field core analysis

We review diffusion-weighted relaxation protocols for two-dimensional diffusion/relaxation time (D, T(2)) distributions and their application to fluid-saturated sedimentary rocks at low fields typical of oil-well logging tools (< or = 2 MHz for 1H). Fixed field gradient (FFG) protocols may be implemented in logging tools and in the laboratory; there, pulsed field gradient (PFG) protocols are also available. In either category, direct or stimulated echoes may be used for the diffusion evolution periods. We compare the results of several variant FFG and PFG protocols obtained on liquids and two contrasting sedimentary rocks. For liquids and rocks of negligible internal gradients (g(int)), results are comparable, as expected, for all the studied protocols. For rocks of strong g(int), protocol-dependent artifacts are seen in the joint (D, T2) distributions, consistent with the effects of the internal fields. For laboratory petrophysics, the PFG methods offer several advantages: (a) significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition times for repetitions over many samples; (b) freedom from heteronuclear contamination when fluorinated liquids are used in core holders; and (c) a palette of variants--one comparable with the FFG--for the study of rocks of significant g(int). Given suitable hardware, both PFG and FFG methods can be implemented in the same bench-top apparatus, providing a versatile test bed for application in a petrophysical laboratory.

533

Fluctuation relations for a classical harmonic oscillator in an electromagnetic field

In this work, we establish some fluctuation relations for a classical two-dimensional system of independent charged harmonic oscillators in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The main fluctuation relation quantifies irreversible behavior by comparing probabilities of observing particular trajectories during forward and backward processes and is expressed in terms of the work performed by the externally time-dependent electric field when the system is driven away from equilibrium. In the absence of a harmonic force and assuming a constant electric field, our theoretical results reduce to the fluctuation relations for a classical two-dimensional system of noninteracting electrons under the influence of externally crossed electric and magnetic fields, which were recently studied [D. Roy and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. E 78, 052102 (2008)]. Finally, by considering the dragging of the center of the harmonic trap potential given by the presence of the arbitrary time-dependent electric field, the work-fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality are verified.

534

Fluorescence microscopy imaging of electroperturbation in mammalian cells

We report the design, integration, and validation of a fluorescence microscopy system for imaging of electroperturbation--the effects of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulsed electric fields on biological cells and tissues. Such effects have potential applications in cancer therapy, gene regulation, and biophysical research by noninvasively disrupting intracellular compartments and inducing apoptosis in malignant cells. As the primary observing platform, an epifluorescence microscope integrating a nanosecond high-voltage pulser and a micrometer electrode chamber enable in situ imaging of the intracellular processes triggered by high electric fields. Using specific fluorescence molecular probes, the dynamic biological responses of Jurkat T lymphocytes to nanosecond electric pulses (nanoelectropulses) are studied with this system, including calcium bursts, the polarized translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS), and nuclear enlargement and chromatin/DNA structural changes.

535

Focal spots of size lambda/23 open up far-field fluorescence microscopy at 33 nm axial resolution

We report spots of excited molecules of 33 nm width created with focused light of lambda = 760 nm wavelength and conventional optics along the optic axis. This is accomplished by exciting the molecules with a femtosecond pulse and subsequent depletion of their excited state with red-shifted, picosecond-pulsed, counterpropagating, coherent light fields. The lambda/23 ratio constitutes what is to our knowledge the sharpest spatial definition attained with freely propagating electromagnetic radiation. The sub-diffraction spots enable for the first time far-field fluorescence microscopy with resolution at the tens of nanometer scale, as demonstrated in images of membranes of bacillus megaterium.

536

Formula for the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves

A new formula for the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves presented by Chen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121125 (2006)] is investigated and discussed here. The difference between the result obtained with the new formula and that obtained directly using the phase term is small for a fundament-mode Gaussian laser beam. However, this difference is qualitative in some high-order Gaussian-mode laser beams. Using the new formula for such beams, discontinuities arise in the distribution of the phase velocity. This distribution is not rotationally symmetric with respect to the optical axis, and an imaginary phase velocity may appear near these discontinuities.

537

Fourier synthesis techniques for NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields

This paper describes a method for synthesizing spin rotations with arbitrary space dependence on a sample of noninteracting spin 12 by using nonselective radio frequency pulses and pulsed field gradients. This method is used to map out spatial distribution of inhomogeneous B(0) field and to engineer a space dependent evolution of spins that cancels the space dependent phase spins acquire when precessing in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The technique allows one to record high resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic field by using only time varying linear gradients and rf fields and is expected to find applications in ex situ NMR.

538

Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is improved by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields

Freezing, a symptom characterized by difficulty in the initiation and smooth pursuit of repetitive movements, is a unique and well known clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). It usually occurs in patients with long duration and advanced stage of the disease and is a major cause of disability often resulting in falling. In PD patients freezing manifests most commonly as a sudden attack of immobility usually experienced during walking, attempts to turn while walking, or while approaching a destination. Less commonly it is expressed as arrest of speech or handwriting. The pathophysiology of Parkinsonian freezing, which is considered a distinct clinical feature independent of akinesia, is poorly understood and is believed to involve abnormalities in dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission in critical motor control areas including the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, locus coeruleus and spinal cord. In general, freezing is resistant to pharmacological therapy although in some patients reduction or increase in levodopa dose may improve this symptom. Three medicated PD patients exhibiting disabling episodes of freezing of gait are presented in whom brief, extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla range improved freezing. Two patients had freezing both during "on" and "off" periods while the third patient experienced random episodes of freezing throughout the course of the day. The effect of each EMFs treatment lasted several days after which time freezing gradually reappeared, initially in association with "off" periods. These findings suggest that the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the development of freezing are sensitive to the effects of EMFs, which are believed to improve freezing primarily through the facilitation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission at both junctional (synaptic) and nonjunctional neuronal target sites.

539

French version of the Copenhagen neck functional disability scale

We conducted a study to validate the French version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). METHODS: We used the CNFDS on data generated by a previous randomized controlled trial comparing pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT), spa therapy, and standard therapy in patients with neck pain. Patients were recruited locally and examined by a physician who was unaware of the treatment group and independent from the trial. Treatment efficacy was evaluated based on a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the short-form-36 quality-of-life instrument (SF36), payments by public healthcare insurance, and overall assessments by the patients and physicians. Efficacy was evaluated at baseline, at treatment completion, and after 3 and 6 months. In addition, the patients completed the CNFDS at these time points. RESULTS: CNFDS scores were normally distributed. CNFDS scores and their variations correlated well with the other efficacy criteria. CNFDS scores were less sensitive to change than the VAS pain scores and more sensitive to change than the other efficacy criteria. CONCLUSION: The CNFDS holds promise as a tool for evaluating neck pain. Score reproducibility needs to be studied. The CNFDS can be added to the other instruments that have been translated in recent years to serve as tools for clinical research. However, the ease of completion of the CNFDS is consistent with use in clinical practice.

540

FT-EPR with a Nonresonant Probe: Use of a Truncated Coaxial Line

A truncated transmission line probe (TLP) has been utilized to excite and detect time domain responses after pulsed excitation in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic experiments in the frequency range 200-400 MHz. The TLP device is a modified short-circuited coaxial line, which allows the irradiation of the sample by the traveling wave B1 fields in the frequency range of kilohertz to 30 GHz. In EPR studies at 300 MHz carrier frequency, with 10 W incident power, a 45 degrees pulse is 45 ns in duration. This corresponds to a 0.9-G B1 field. Using the TLP, time-domain responses from the solid N-methyl pyridinium tetra-cyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) were collected at 200, 250, 300, and 350 MHz, with the range limited by the amplifiers. In addition two tubes containing TCNQ placed side-by-side vertically along the axis of the probe were used to collect time domain responses in the presence of magnetic field gradients to test the feasibility of two-dimensional imaging using a TLP. The magnetic field gradient was steered in the xz plane and 36 projections were collected at 5 degrees intervals. Using filtered back-projection image reconstruction, the two-dimensional spatial image in the xz plane was obtained at good resolution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

541

Functional fields in human auditory cortex revealed by time-resolved fMRI without interference of EPI noise

The gradient switching during fast echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging (EPI-fMRI) produces loud noises that may interact with the functional activation of the central auditory system induced by experimental acoustic stimuli. This interaction is unpredictable and is likely to confound the interpretation of functional maps of the auditory cortex. In the present study we used an experimental design which does not require the presentation of stimuli during EPI acquisitions and allows for mapping of the auditory cortex without the interference of scanner noise. The design relies on the physiological delays between the onset, or the end, of stimulation and the corresponding hemodynamic response. Owing to these delays and through a time-resolved acquisition protocol it is possible to analyze the decay of the stimulus-specific signal changes after the cessation of the stimulus itself and before the onset of the EPI-acoustic noise related activation (decay-sampling technique). This experimental design, which might permit a more detailed insight in the auditory cortex, has been applied to the study of the cortical responses to pulsed 1000 Hz sine tones. Distinct activation clusters were detected in the Heschl's gyri and the planum temporale, with an increased extension compared to a conventional block-design paradigm. Furthermore, the comparison of the hemodynamic response of the most anterior and the posterior clusters of activation highlighted differential response patterns to the sound stimulation and to the EPI-noise. These differences, attributable to reciprocal saturation effects unevenly distributed over the superior temporal cortex, provided evidence for functionally distinct auditory fields.

542

Fundamental and practical aspects of therapeutic uses of pulsed elecromagnetic fields (PEMFs)

Bassett CA (1989). "Fundamental and practical aspects of therapeutic uses of pulsed electomagnetic fields (PEMFs)." Critical reviews in biomedical engineering no 17(5): 451-529. This review by Dr. Andrew Bassett focuses on the principles and practice behind the therapeutic use of Pulsating magnetic fields. This term is restricted to time- varying magnetic field characteristics that induce him voltage waveform patterns in bones similar to those resulting from mechanical deformation. These asymmetric, broadband pulses effect a number of biologic processes athermally. Many of these processes appear to have the ability to modify selected pathologic states in the musculoskeletal and other systems.

543

Fundamental and practical aspects of therapeutic uses of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs)

The beneficial therapeutic effects of selected low-energy, time-varying magnetic fields, called PEMFs, have been documented with increasing frequency since 1973. Initially, this form of athermal energy was used mainly as a salvage for patients with long-standing juvenile and adult nonunions. Many of these individuals were candidates for amputation. Their clearly documented resistance to the usual forms of surgical treatment, including bone grafting, served as a reasonable control in judging the efficacy of this new therapeutic method, particularly when PEMFs were the sole change in patient management. More recently, the biological effectiveness of this approach in augmenting bone healing has been confirmed by several highly significant double-blind and controlled prospective studies in less challenging clinical circumstances. Furthermore, double-blind evidence of therapeutic effects in other clinical disorders has emerged. These data, coupled with well-controlled laboratory findings on pertinent mechanisms of action, have begun to place PEMFs on a therapeutic par with surgically invasive methods but at considerably less risk and cost. As a result of these clinical observations and concerns about electromagnetic "pollution", interactions of nonionizing electromagnetic fields with biological processes have been the subject of increasing investigational activity. Over the past decade, the number of publications on these topics has risen exponentially. They now include textbooks, speciality journals, regular reviews by government agencies, in addition to individual articles, appearing in the wide spectrum of peer-reviewed, scientific sources. In a recent editorial in Current Contents, the editor reviews the frontiers of biomedical engineering focusing on Science Citation Index methods for identifying core research endeavors. Dr. Garfield chose PEMFs from among other biomedical engineering efforts as an example of a rapidly emerging discipline. Three new societies in the bioelectromagnetics, bioelectrochemistry, and bioelectrical growth and repair have been organized during this time, along with a number of national and international committees and conferences. These activities augment a continuing interest by the IEEE in the U.S. and the IEE in the U.K. This review focuses on the principles and practice behind the therapeutic use of "PEMFs". This term is restricted to time-varying magnetic field characteristics that induce voltage waveform patterns in bone similar to those resulting from mechanical deformation. These asymmetric, broad-band pulses affect a number of biologic processes athermally. Many of these processes appear to have the ability to modify selected pathologic states in the musculoskeletal and other systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

544

Further observations on the effects of external picoTesla range magnetic fields on visual memory and visuospatial functions in multiple sclerosis

The occurrence of cognitive deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed "enfeeblement of memory" in his patients and subsequently Gowers (1893) described "failure of memory." The presence of cognitive deficits in MS may be a major cause of disability which is often severe enough to preclude employment. Impairment of memory including visual memory is one of the most common features of the dementia of MS and may be evident in early stages of the disease. Disturbances of visuospatial and visuomotor functions are also commonly encountered in MS patients reflecting the multiplicity of lesion sites in the disease. Recently, I have reported that treatment with magnetic fields (MF) in the picoTesla range is an efficacious modality in the management of MS and have demonstrated improvement in visuospatial functions with this treatment modality. In the present communication I present four additional patients with MS in whom application of these extremely weak MF produced an improvement in visual memory as well as visuospatial and visuomotor functions. The data presented demonstrate the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in reversing some of the cognitive deficits associated with MS.

545

Further observations on the unique efficacy of picoTesla range magnetic fields in Parkinson's disease

External application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) has been reported recently to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) including those who manifest levodopa-related dyskinesias. In the present communication, we present four additional Parkinsonian patients who showed, within a brief period of time, marked improvement in motor symptoms after therapy with MF. Three of the patients had been maintained on antiParkinsonian medication during treatment with MF while the fourth patient had never received pharmacotherapy. Improvement with magnetic therapy was noted not only in the motor sphere (resting tremor, gait apraxia, postural instability), but also in nonmotor aspects of the disease including mood, sleep, pain, anorexia, autonomic, and cognitive functions attesting to the unique efficacy of external picoTesla range MF in the treatment of Parkinsonism. Poverty of facial expression (hypomimia, "masked facies"), which correlates with the degree of striatal dopaminergic deficiency, is one of the clinical hallmarks of PD reflecting the severity of hypokinesia and rigidity in the orofacial musculature. In this report, we emphasize the effects of MF on the hypomimia of PD and provide visual documentation illustrating the changes in the patients' facial expression which follow treatment with MF.

546

G-tensors of the flavin adenine dinucleotide radicals in glucose oxidase: a comparative multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study

The flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GO) in its anionic (FAD*-) and neutral (FADH*) radical form was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at high microwave frequencies (93.9 and 360 GHz) and correspondingly high magnetic fields and by pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy at 9.7 GHz. Because of the high spectral resolution of the frozen-solution continuous-wave EPR spectrum recorded at 360 GHz, the anisotropy of the g-tensor of FAD*- could be fully resolved. By least-squares fittings of spectral simulations to experimental data, the principal values of g have been established with high precision: gX=2.00429(3), gY=2.00389(3), gZ=2.00216(3) (X, Y, and Z are the principal axes of g) yielding giso=2.00345(3). The gY-component of FAD*- from GO is moderately shifted upon deprotonation of FADH*, rendering the g-tensor of FAD*- slightly more axially symmetric as compared to that of FADH*. In contrast, significantly altered proton hyperfine couplings were observed by ENDOR upon transforming the neutral FADH* radical into the anionic FAD*- radical by pH titration of GO. That the g-principal values of both protonation forms remain largely identical demonstrates the robustness of g against local changes in the electron-spin density distribution of flavins. Thus, in flavins, the g-tensor reflects more global changes in the electronic structure and, therefore, appears to be ideally suited to identify chemically different flavin radicals.

547

Gain and loss of propagating electromagnetic wave along a hollow silver nanorod

Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, we examined the electromagnetic wave propagation along a hollow silver nanorod with subwavelength dimensions. The calculations show that light may propagate along the hollow nanorod with growing intensities. The influences of the shape, dimension, and length of the rod on the resonance wavelength and the enhanced local electric field, |E|(2), along the rod were investigated. The resonance wavelength monotonically red-shifted with increasing rod dimension perpendicular to the polarization direction. The resonance peak initially shifted to blue with increasing rod dimension parallel to the polarization direction and eventually shifted to red after a threshold value. For the hollow rods with similar cross sections, the square and rectangular rods produced greater enhanced electric fields along the rods. For the rectangular hollow rods with a fixed 10 nm thick shell and 100 nm long edge perpendicular to the polarization direction, light propagates along the outer surface of the rods when the parallel edge length is larger than 50 nm. The propagating wave with higher intensities is confined inside the hollow rods when the parallel edge length is less than 50 nm.

548

Gel electrophoresis of end-labeled DNA. II. Dynamics and detrapping in pulsed fields

A theory for field-inversion gel electrophoresis of a flexible polyelectrolyte bearing an uncharged bulky label at one end is described, and the evolution of the mobility with chain length, field strength, friction of the label, and the duration of the forward and reverse pulses is predicted. A new critical size, Ndetrap, is introduced, and its value calculated. It increases roughly linearly with the duration of the reverse pulses. Chains smaller than Ndetrap are detrapped by reverse pulses, and may have a high mobility, whereas chains larger than Ndetrap are not trapped, and have a very small mobility. This leads to an increase of the mobility (as compared with constant field) in a given range of sizes, and to a strong selectivity around Ndetrap. Depending on the parameters, numerous other effects, including a secondary mobility plateau and band inversion, may appear. The corresponding regimes are predicted and discussed. All predictions are qualitatively consistent with available experimental data. We use them to suggest efficient conditions for the development of pulsed-field trapping electrophoresis, a possible tool for improved DNA sequencing. In particular, we recommend using a ramping of pulse times, with a constant ratio of forward to reverse time in the range 3 to 5.

549

Generation of 1.5-kW, 1-THz coherent radiation from a gyrotron with a pulsed magnetic field

To cover a so-called terahertz gap in available sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation, the gyrotron with a pulsed solenoid producing up to a 40 T magnetic field has been designed, manufactured, and tested. At a 38.5 T magnetic field, the gyrotron generated coherent radiation at 1.022 THz frequency in 50 musec pulses. The microwave power and energy per pulse were about 1.5 kW and 75 mJ, respectively. Details of the gyrotron design, manufacturing, operation and measurements of output radiation are given.

551

Geophysical variables and behavior: XCIX. Reductions in numbers of neurons within the parasolitary nucleus in rats exposed perinatally to a magnetic pattern designed to imitate geomagnetic continuous pulsations: implications for sudden infant death

Correlational analyses have shown a moderate strength association between the occurrence of continuous pulsations, a type of geomagnetic activity within the 0.2-Hz to 5-Hz range, and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Deaths. In the present study, rats were exposed continuously from two days before birth to seven days after birth to 0.5-Hz pulsed-square wave magnetic fields whose intensities were within either the nanoTesla or microTesla range. The magnetic fields were generated in either an east-west (E-W) or north-south (N-S) direction. At 21 days of age, the area of the parasolitary nucleus (but not the solitary nucleus) was significantly smaller, and the numbers of neurons were significantly less in rats that had been exposed to the nanoT fields generated in the east-west direction or to the microTesla fields generated within either E-W or N-S direction relative to those exposed to the N-S nanoTesla fields. These results suggest nanoTesla magnetic fields, when applied in a specific direction, might interact with the local geomagnetic field to affect cell migration in structures within the brain stem that modulate vestibular-related arousal and respiratory or cardiovascular stability.

552

Geophysical variables and behavior: XXXIX. Alterations in imaginings and suggestibility during brief magnetic field exposures

12 male and 12 female volunteers were evaluated for their suggestibility before and after an approximately 15-min. exposure to either sham, 1-Hz or 4-Hz magnetic fields that were applied across their mid-superior temporal lobes. During the field-application subjects were instructed to view a green light that was pulsating at the same frequency as the field and to imagine encountering an alien situation. Results were commensurate with the hypothesis that weak brain-frequency fields may influence certain aspects of imaginings and alter suggestibility.

553

Global electromagnetic induction constraints on transition-zone water content variations

Small amounts of water can significantly affect the physical properties of mantle materials, including lowering of the solidus, and reducing effective viscosity and seismic velocity. The amount and distribution of water within the mantle thus has profound implications for the dynamics and geochemical evolution of the Earth. Electrical conductivity is also highly sensitive to the presence of hydrogen in mantle minerals. The mantle transition zone minerals wadsleyite and ringwoodite in particular have high water solubility, and recent high pressure experiments show that the electrical conductivity of these minerals is very sensitive to water content. Thus estimates of the electrical conductivity of the mantle transition zone derived from electromagnetic induction studies have the potential to constrain the water content of this region. Here we invert long period geomagnetic response functions to derive a global-scale three-dimensional model of electrical conductivity variations in the Earth's mantle, revealing variations in the electrical conductivity of the transition zone of approximately one order of magnitude. Conductivities are high in cold, seismically fast, areas where slabs have subducted into or through the transition zone. Significant variations in water content throughout the transition zone provide a plausible explanation for the observed patterns. Our results support the view that at least some of the water in the transition zone has been carried into that region by cold subducting slabs.

554

Growth and differentiation of PC6 cells: the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF)

Previous studies in our laboratory showed that neurite outgrowth in vitro and nerve regeneration in vivo were stimulated by 2 Hz, 0.3 mT (3 G) pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). To learn more about the effects of PEMF on nerve cells, we exposed PC6 cells, a standard neuronal-like cell model, to the same pulsed electromagnetic fields for 2 h/day for 2 days and asked whether two different cell processes, proliferation and differentiation, were affected. The cells were also treated with a differentiating agent, nerve growth factor (NGF), to further define any interactive effects. We found that proliferation was unaffected by either PEMF or NGF alone or in combination. Differentiation, expressed as neurite outgrowth, was strongly upregulated with NGF, but this NGF response was significantly depressed in cells treated with PEMF.

555

Growth and observation of low-field giant magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/ZnO superlattice structures

We report the growth of a new class of superlattice structure, consisting of alternate layers of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and ZnO, which exhibits giant magnetoresistance at low fields. These superlattices were fabricated using a novel pulsed-laser deposition technique with a specially designed target assembly. Giant magnetoresistance of > 250% has been observed in these structures in current-in-plane configuration on the application of just -400 Gauss of magnetic field over the broad temperature range 15-200 K. Observation of giant magnetoresistance at such low magnetic fields is a groundbreaking step in the field of novel magnetic materials and devices.

556

GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms

The influence of pulsed radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields of digital GSM mobile phones (902 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulation) on subjective symptoms or sensations in healthy subjects were studied in two single-blind experiments. The duration of the RF exposure was about 60 min in Experiment 1 and 30 min in Experiment 2. Each subject rated symptoms or sensations in the beginning of the experimental session and at the end of both the exposure and the nonexposure conditions. The symptoms rated were headache, dizziness, fatigue, itching or tingling of the skin, redness on the skin, and sensations of warmth on the skin. The results did not reveal any differences between exposure and non-exposure conditions, suggesting that a 30-60 min exposure to this RF field does not produce subjective symptoms in humans.

558

Healing of non-union of the medial malleolus by means of direct current -- a case report

Modern clinical application of the electro-biology began in 1971 when Friedenberg described their success in the healing of a nonunion treated with 10 microamps of direct current delivered with stainless steel electrodes.

559

Healing of nonunion of a fractured lateral condyle of the humerus by pulsing electromagnetic induction

Nonoperative salvage of a surgically resistant case of established nonunion of a fracture of the lateral condyle of the humerus in a child is described. Solid union was achieved by treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. A review of the literature indicates that this is the first published report of such a case.

560

Health effects relevant to the setting of EMF exposure limits

To date, electric and magnetic exposure limits for frequencies below 100 kHz have been based on vaguely defined neurobiological responses to electric fields induced in tissues in vivo by magnetic fields and on perceptual responses to external electric fields. Advances in tissue dosimetry, risk assessment methods, and biological research on stimulation thresholds and mechanisms are providing new bases for exposure limits. This paper reviews the historical basis for current electric and magnetic exposure limits in preparation for the development of the "next generation" of electric and magnetic occupational and public exposure guidelines. This is followed by an overview of reported neurobiological effects of electric and magnetic stimulation that should be considered in new exposure guidelines. For magnetic fields, there is stronger evidence for setting exposure limits to protect against adverse effects of nerve stimulation than for protecting against visual magnetophosphenes. Magnetophosphenes are not adverse, and the evidence that these perceptual responses of the eye are a precursor or surrogate for other adverse neurologic responses is weak. Rather than relying just on theoretical models to set exposure limits, data from human subjects exposed to pulsed magnetic fields should be used to estimate nerve stimulation thresholds. Such data can provide a solid basis for setting magnetic field exposure limits if uncertainties in the data and inter-individual variability are addressed. Research on sensory perception, spontaneous and evoked potentials, and epidemiologic studies of neuropsychiatric conditions in electric and magnetic exposed populations does not suggest a need for lower exposure limits. However, a report that a 60-mT magnetic field (below the threshold for peripheral nerve stimulation) produces prolonged alterations of brain excitability and "indisposure" of subjects should be investigated in future research.

561

Hematological changes in rats exposed to weak electromagnetic fields

A number of experimental studies report that biological systems can be affected by in vivo exposure to low frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. However, attempts to independently replicate some of these studies have shown the reported effects to be elusive. The difficulty in replicating results could be due to unidentified physical and/or biological parameters which may affect the response of a sample to electromagnetic fields. The present paper reports a failure to independently replicate a study showing that in vivo exposure to a pulsed magnetic field of 1.5 mT caused significant changes on plasma proteins in rats. Although the possibility has to be considered that the results from the seminal work were artifactual, substantial differences in levels of plasma proteins were observed between the control groups of the two studies indicating that the animals in the first study had an infectious illness. This observation supports the hypothesis that the state of physiological equilibrium of a biological system is crucial to its response to a potentially effective electromagnetic field.

562

Heterogeneity of serum activities of matrix metalloproteinases in chronic endometritis

Matrix metalloproteinases belong to the key molecules of tissue remodeling involved in physiological and pathological processes of the female reproductive system. Adequate levels of their expression in the endometrium are essential for effective implantation and uneventful pregnancy. Chronic inflammatory process in the endometrium is associated with low tissue expression of metalloproteinase-9. Histologically verified chronic endometritis is associated with low serum activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9, which are restored after combined etiotropic therapy. We measured serum levels of metalloproteinases in patients with chronic endometritis concomitant with sterility and its changes during the first days after magnetotherapy.

563

High magnetic field gradient PGSE NMR in the presence of a large polarizing field

A description is given of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR experiments in which large pulsed magnetic field gradients may be required. The design contraints are discussed and, in particular, the problem of the use of large pulsed magnetic field gradients in conjunction with large polarizing fields is considered. Issues addressed concern probe mechanical assembly, current supply requirements, and pulse shape design. We describe a quadrupolar coil with a gradient amplitude of 1.65 T m-1 A-1 which has been used successfully up to a maximum gradient of around 40 T m-1. A diffusion coefficent of 7.5 x 10(-16) m2 s-1 has been measured using this system, the lowest yet achieved by PGSE NMR methods. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

564

High resolution electron spin resonance microscopy

NMR microscopy is routinely employed in fields of science such as biology, botany, and materials science to observe magnetic parameters and transport phenomena in small scale structures. Despite extensive efforts, the resolution of this method is limited (>10 microm for short acquisition times), and thus cannot answer many key questions in these fields. We show, through theoretical prediction and initial experiments, that ESR microscopy, although much less developed, can improve upon the resolution limits of NMR, and successfully undertake the 1 mum resolution challenge. Our theoretical predictions demonstrate that existing ESR technology, along with advanced imaging probe design (resonator and gradient coils), using solutions of narrow linewidth radicals (the trityl family), should yield 64 x 64 pixels 2D images (with z slice selection) with a resolution of 1 x 1 x 10 microm at approximately 60 GHz in less than 1h of acquisition. Our initial imaging results, conducted by CW ESR at X-band, support these theoretical predictions and already improve upon the previously reported state-of-the-art for 2D ESR image resolution achieving approximately 10 x 10 mum, in just several minutes of acquisition time. We analyze how future progress, which includes improved resonators, increased frequency of measurement, and advanced pulsed techniques, should achieve the goal of micron resolution.

566

High-field pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy to determine the orientation of the tyrosyl radicals in ribonucleotide reductase

Class I ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are composed of two subunits, R1 and R2. The R2 subunit contains the essential diferric cluster-tyrosyl radical (Y.) cofactor, and R1 is the site of the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside diphosphates. It has been proposed that the function of the tyrosyl radical in R2 is to generate a transient thiyl radical (C439.) in R1 over a distance of 35 A, which in turn initiates the reduction process. EPR distance measurements provide a tool with which to study the mechanism of radical initiation in class I RNRs. These types of experiments at low magnetic fields and frequencies (0.3 T, 9 GHz) give insight into interradical distances and populations. We present a pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) experiment at high EPR frequency (180-GHz electron Larmor frequency) that detects the dipolar interaction between the Y.s in each protomer of RNR R2 from Escherichia coli. We observe a correlation between the orientation-dependent dipolar interaction and their resolved g-tensors. This information has allowed us to define the relative orientation of two radicals embedded in the active homodimeric protein in solution. This experiment demonstrates that high-field PELDOR spectroscopy is a powerful tool with which to study the assembly of proteins that contain multiple paramagnetic centers.

567

High-performance high-TC superconducting wires

We demonstrated short segments of a superconducting wire that meets or exceeds performance requirements for many large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting materials, especially those requiring a high supercurrent and/or a high engineering critical current density in applied magnetic fields. The performance requirements for these varied applications were met in 3-micrometer-thick YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films epitaxially grown via pulsed laser ablation on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates. Enhancements of the critical current in self-field as well as excellent retention of this current in high applied magnetic fields were achieved in the thick films via incorporation of a periodic array of extended columnar defects, composed of self-aligned nanodots of nonsuperconducting material extending through the entire thickness of the film. These columnar defects are highly effective in pinning the superconducting vortices or flux lines, thereby resulting in the substantially enhanced performance of this wire.

568

High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 2. Effect of pulse time and electric field strength and implications for models of the separation process

Bacteriophage DNAs annealed into linear oligomeric concatemers were used to examine the quantitative pulsed-field gel electrophoretic behavior of different-sized DNAs as a function of electrical field strength and pulse time. Three zones of resolution are observed for increasingly larger DNAs. In the first two zones, the electrophoretic mobility decreases linearly with increasing DNA size. The separation in zone 2 is roughly twice that in zone 1. The largest DNA molecules do not resolve at all and migrate in a compression zone. Mobility in zone 1 increases linearly with the electric field strength and decreases with the inverse of the pulse time. The behavior of DNA in zone 2 is qualitatively similar. However, the effect of field strength and pulse time on the separations in each zone is quite different. The results for zone 1 are generally consistent with the predictions of several existing physical models of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but no model accounts for all of the observed behavior in the three zones.

569

High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 3. Effect of electrical field shape

The resolution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is dramatically affected by the number and configuration of the electrodes used, because these alter the shape of the applied electrical fields. Here we present calculations and experiments on the effect of electrode position in one of the most commonly used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis configurations. The goal was to explore which aspects of the electrical field shape correlate with improved electrophoretic resolution. The most critical variable appears to be the angle between the alternate electrical fields. The most effective electrode configurations yield angles of more than 110 degrees. A continually increasing angle between the fields produces band sharpening that greatly enhances the resolution.

570

Histomorphometric and mechanical analysis of the hydroxyapatite-bone interface after electromagnetic stimulation: an experimental study in rabbits

We investigated the effect of stimulation with a pulsed electromagnetic field on the osseointegration of hydroxyapatite in cortical bone in rabbits. Implants were inserted into femoral cortical bone and were stimulated for six hours per day for three weeks. Electromagnetic stimulation improved osseointegration of hydroxyapatite compared with animals which did not receive this treatment in terms of direct contact with the bone, the maturity of the bone and mechanical fixation. The highest values of maximum push-out force (F(max)) and ultimate shear strength (sigma(u)) were observed in the treated group and differed significantly from those of the control group at three weeks (F(max); p < 0.0001; sigma(u), p < 0.0005).

571

Human exposure to a specific pulsed magnetic field: effects on thermal sensory and pain thresholds

Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields (MF) has been shown to have a therapeutic benefit in both animals (e.g. mice, snails) and humans. The current study investigated the potential analgesic benefit of MF exposure on sensory and pain thresholds following experimentally induced warm and hot sensations. Thirty-nine subjects (Study 1) and 31 subjects (Study 2) were randomly and double-blindly assigned to 30 min of MF or sham exposure between two sets of tests of sensory and pain thresholds and latencies at, 1 degrees C above, and 2 degrees C above pain thresholds. Results indicated that MF exposure does not affect sensory thresholds [e.g. [F(1,31) = 0.073, NS]. Pain thresholds were significantly increased following MF exposure [F(1,6) = 9.45, P < 0.01] but not following sham exposure [F (1,4) = 4.22, NS]. A significant condition by gender interaction existed for post-exposure pain thresholds [F(1,27) = 5.188, P < 0.05]. Taken together, these results indicate that MF exposure does not affect basic human perception, but can increase pain thresholds in a manner indicative of an analgesic response. The potential involvement of the placebo effect is discussed.

572

Human in vivo phosphate metabolite imaging with 31P NMR

Phosphorus (31P) spectroscopic images showing the distribution of high-energy phosphate metabolites in the human brain have been obtained at 1.5 T in scan times of 8.5 to 34 min at 27 and 64 cm3 spatial resolution using pulsed phase-encoding gradient magnetic fields and three-dimensional Fourier transform (3DFT) techniques. Data were acquired as free induction decays with a quadrature volume NMR detection coil of a truncated geometry designed to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio on the coil axis on the assumption that the sample noise represents the dominant noise source, and self-shielded magnetic field gradient coils to minimize eddy-current effects. The images permit comparison of metabolic data acquired simultaneously from different locations in the brain, as well as metabolite quantification by inclusion of a vial containing a standard of known 31P concentration in the image array. Values for the NMR visible adenosine triphosphate in three individuals were about 3 mM of tissue. The ratio of NMR detectable phosphocreatine to ATP in brain was 1.15 +/- 0.17 SD in these experiments. Potential sources of random and systematic error in these and other 31P measurements are identified.

573

Human sleep EEG under the influence of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Results from polysomnographies using submaximal high power flux densities

Former exploratory investigations of sleep alterations due to global system for mobile communications (GSM) signals have shown a hypnotic and REM-suppressive effect under field exposure. This effect was observed in a first study using a power flux density of 0.5 W/m(2), and the same trend occurred in a second study with a power flux density of 0.2 W/m(2). For the present study, we applied a submaximal power flux density of 50 W/m(2). To investigate putative effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of cellular GSM phones on human sleep EEG pattern, all-night polysomnographies of 20 healthy male subjects both with and without exposure to a circularly polarized EMF (900 MHz, pulsed with a frequency of 217 Hz, pulse duration 577 microseconds) were recorded. The results showed no significant effect of the field application either on conventional sleep parameters or on sleep EEG power spectra.

574

Human sleep under the influence of pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: a polysomnographic study using standardized conditions

To investigate the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of cellular phone GSM signals on human sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern, all-night polysomnographies of 24 healthy male subjects were recorded, both with and without exposure to a circular polarized EMF (900 MHz, pulsed with a frequency of 217 Hz, pulse width 577 micros, power flux density 0.2 W/m2. Suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as well as a sleep-inducing effect under field exposure did not reach statistical significance, so that previous results indicating alterations of these sleep parameters could not be replicated. Spectral power analysis also did not reveal any alterations of the EEG rhythms during EMF exposure. The failure to confirm our previous results might be due to dose-dependent effects of the EMF on the human sleep profile.

575

Human standing balance is affected by exposure to pulsed ELF magnetic fields: light intensity-dependent effects

There is evidence in animals that behavioral and physiological responses to static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) is affected by the presence of light during magnetic field exposures. Here we report that the effect of a specific pulsed ELFMF (PEMF) on human standing balance is modulated by light intensity during exposure. Under a low light condition (0.12 W/m2), nine healthy human volunteers stood on a 3D forceplate, throughout four 2 min exposures (eyes open/eyes close, sham/PEMF of 200 +/- 1 microTpk, order randomized). There was a significant increase in standing movement during PEMF exposure during eyes closed. In a second experiment on 26 normal subjects exposed to the identical protocol, but at greater light intensities (0.51 W/m2), a significant but opposite effect was observed.

576

Human subjects exposed to a specific pulsed (200 microT) magnetic field: effects on normal standing balance

Static and time-varying magnetic fields have been shown to alter animal and human behaviors, such as directional orientation, learning, pain perception (nociception or analgesia) and anxiety-related behaviors. Human volunteers (12 male, 12 female, 18-34 years old) stood on a force plate while within three square magnetic field coil pairs (2, 1.75 and 1.5 m) arranged orthogonal with the uniform magnetic field volume centered at head level. Analysis of the data shows a significant improvement of normal standing balance or center of pressure, with eyes open or eyes closed, by a specific pulsed 200 microT(pk) magnetic field (PEMF). There was no significance found in control condition testing, such as sham-sham exposure of subjects or sham/PEMF exposure of a 60 kg saline phantom. There were no significant effects of gender or age.

577

Hyperpolarization of plasma membrane of tumor cells sensitive to antiapoptotic effects of magnetic fields

Chemical/physical agents able to prevent apoptosis are receiving much attention for their potential health hazard as tumor promoters. Magnetic fields (MFs), which have been shown to increase the occurrence of some tumors, reduce damage-induced apoptosis by a mechanism involving Ca2+ entry into cells. In order to discover the mechanism of such effect of MFs, we investigated the interference of MFs on cell metabolism and analyzed cell parameters that are involved in apoptotic signaling and regulation of Ca2+ fluxes. Here we show that different types (static and extremely low-frequency, ELF pulsating) of MFs of different intensities alter plasma membrane potential. Interestingly, MFs induce plasma membrane hyperpolarization in cells sensitive to the antiapoptotic effect of MFs, whereas cells that are insensitive showed a plasma membrane depolarization. These opposite effects suggest that protection against apoptosis and membrane potential modulation are correlated, plasma membrane hyperpolarization possibly being part of the signal transduction chain determining MFs' antiapoptotic effect.

578

Ice and pulsed electromagnetic field to reduce pain and swelling after distal radius fractures

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative effectiveness of ice therapy and/or pulsed electromagnetic field in reducing pain and swelling after the immobilization period following a distal radius fracture. METHODS: A total of 83 subjects were randomly allocated to receive 30 minutes of either ice plus pulsed electromagnetic field (group A); ice plus sham pulsed electromagnetic field (group B); pulsed electromagnetic field alone (group C), or sham pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for 5 consecutive days (group D). All subjects received a standard home exercise programme. A visual analogue scale was used for recording pain; volumetric displacement for measuring the swelling of the forearm; and a hand-held goniometer for measuring the range of wrist motions before treatment on days 1, 3 and 5. RESULTS: At day 5, a significantly greater cumulative reduction in the visual analogue scores as well as ulnar deviation range of motion was found in group A than the other 3 groups. For volumetric measurement and pronation, participants in group A performed better than subjects in group D but not those in group B. CONCLUSION: The addition of pulsed electromagnetic field to ice therapy produces better overall treatment outcomes than ice alone, or pulsed electromagnetic field alone in pain reduction and range of joint motion in ulnar deviation and flexion for a distal radius fracture after an immobilization period of 6 weeks.

580

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (formerly 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity'): An updated systematic review of provocation studies

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF; formerly 'electromagetic hypersensitivity') is a medically unexplained illness in which subjective symptoms are reported following exposure to electrical devices. In an earlier systematic review, we reported data from 31 blind provocation studies which had exposed IEI-EMF volunteers to active or sham electromagnetic fields and assessed whether volunteers could detect these fields or whether they reported worse symptoms when exposed to them. In this article, we report an update to that review. An extensive literature search identified 15 new experiments. Including studies reported in our earlier review, 46 blind or double-blind provocation studies in all, involving 1175 IEI-EMF volunteers, have tested whether exposure to electromagnetic fields is responsible for triggering symptoms in IEI-EMF. No robust evidence could be found to support this theory. However, the studies included in the review did support the role of the nocebo effect in triggering acute symptoms in IEI-EMF sufferers. Despite the conviction of IEI-EMF sufferers that their symptoms are triggered by exposure to electromagnetic fields, repeated experiments have been unable to replicate this phenomenon under controlled conditions. A narrow focus by clinicians or policy makers on bioelectromagnetic mechanisms is therefore, unlikely to help IEI-EMF patients in the long-term. Bioelectromagnetics, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

581

Immediate recovery of cognitive functions and resolution of fatigue by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields in a patient with multiple sclerosis

Cognitive deficits are common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment in MS are unknown and there is presently no effective therapeutic modality which has shown efficacy in improving cognitive deficits in MS. A 53 year old college professor with a long history of secondary progressive MS experienced, over the preceding year, noticeable deterioration in cognitive functions with difficulties in short and long term memory, word finding in spontaneous speech, attention and concentration span. Unable to pursue his academic activities, he was considering early retirement. Mental examination disclosed features of subcortical and cortical dementia involving frontal lobe, left hemispheric and right hemispheric dysfunction. Almost immediately following the extracerebral application of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla intensity and a 4-Hz sinusoidal wave, the patient experienced a heightend sense of well being, which he defined as enhancement of cognitive functions with a feeling "like a cloud lifted off my head." He reported heightend clarity of thinking and during the application of EMFs he felt that words were formed faster and he experienced no difficulty finding the appropriate words. His speech was stronger and well modulated and he felt "energized" with resolution of his fatigue. There was improvement in manual dexterity and handwriting and testing of constructional praxis demonstrated improvement in visuospatial, visuoperceptive and visuomotor functions. It is suggested that some of the cognitive deficits associated with MS, which are caused by synaptic disruption of neurotransmitter functions, may be reversed through pulsed applications of picotesla range EMFs.

582

Impact of low frequency pulsed magnetic fields on pain intensity, quality of life and sleep disturbances in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy

AIM: The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was to assess whether a low frequency magnetic field can influence pain intensity, quality of life and sleep, and glycaemic control in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy. METHODS: Sixty-one patients were randomized into two groups: the study group comprised 32 patients exposed to a low frequency magnetic field, average pain duration 23 months; the control group included 29 patients who received sham exposure, average pain duration 28 months. Patients were exposed for three weeks, 20min a day, five days a week. The magnetic field generator was a Viofor JPS device (Med & Life, Komorow, Poland). All subjects filled out the following questionnaires five times (at the beginning and after one, two, three and five weeks): SFMPQ-VAS (pain evaluation), EuroQol EQ-5D and MOS Sleep Scale. HbA(1c) was evaluated at baseline and after five weeks. RESULTS: Significant reductions in pain intensity were seen in both the study group (visual analogue scale [VAS] value of 73mm at baseline versus 33mm after three weeks) and controls (VAS 69mm at baseline versus 41mm after three weeks). The extent of pain reduction did not differ significantly between the groups at any time. Also, both groups had similar improvements in EuroQol, MOS and HbA(1c) values. CONCLUSION: Genuine magnetic field exposure has no advantage over sham exposure in reducing pain intensity, improving quality of life, and decreasing sleep disturbances and HbA(1c).

583

Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline

Concern has arisen over human exposures to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR), including a recent report indicating that regular mobile phone use can negatively impact upon human semen quality. These effects would be particularly serious if the biological effects of RFEMR included the induction of DNA damage in male germ cells. In this study, mice were exposed to 900 MHz RFEMR at a specific absorption rate of approximately 90 mW/kg inside a waveguide for 7 days at 12 h per day. Following exposure, DNA damage to caudal epididymal spermatozoa was assessed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) as well as alkaline and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The treated mice were overtly normal and all assessment criteria, including sperm number, morphology and vitality were not significantly affected. Gel electrophoresis revealed no gross evidence of increased single- or double-DNA strand breakage in spermatozoa taken from treated animals. However, a detailed analysis of DNA integrity using QPCR revealed statistically significant damage to both the mitochondrial genome (p < 0.05) and the nuclear beta-globin locus (p < 0.01). This study suggests that while RFEMR does not have a dramatic impact on male germ cell development, a significant genotoxic effect on epididymal spermatozoa is evident and deserves further investigation.

584

Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary

The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1beta, were analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1beta, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage.

585

Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with postural instability and an increased risk of falling which is facilitated by a variety of factors including diminished visual acuity, diplopia, ataxia, apraxia of gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Deficient binocular depth perception may also contribute to a higher incidence of postural instability and falling in these patients who, for example, find it an extremely difficult task to walk on uneven ground, over curbs, or up and down steps. I report a 51 year old woman with secondary progressive MS who experienced difficulties with binocular depth perception resulting in frequent falls and injuries. Deficient depth perception was demonstrated also on spontaneous drawing of a cube. Following a series of transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7,5 picotesla flux density, the patient experienced a major improvement in depth perception which was evident particularly on ascending and descending stairs. These clinical changes were associated with an improvement in spatial organization and depth perception on drawing a cube. These findings suggest that in MS impairment of depth perception, which is encoded in the primary visual cortex (area 17) and visual association cortex (areas 18 and 19), may be improved by administration of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density. The primary visual cortex is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons which modulate visual information processing. Cerebral serotonin concentrations are diminished in MS patients and at least some aspects of deficient depth perception in MS may be related to dysfunction of serotonergic transmission in the primary visual cortex. It is suggested that transcranial AC pulsed applications of EMFs improve depth perception partly by augmenting serotonergic transmission in the visual cortex.

586

Implantable cardiac pacemaker electromagnetic compatibility testing in a novel security system simulator

This paper describes a novel simulator to perform electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests for active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) with electromagnetic fields emitted by security systems. The security system simulator was developed in response to over 100 incident reports over 17 years related to the interference of AIMD's with security systems and the lack of a standardized test method. The simulator was evaluated regarding field homogeneity, signal distortion, and maximum magnetic field strength levels. Small three-axis probes and a three-axis scanning system were designed to determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of the fields emitted by 12 different types of walk through metal detectors (WTMDs). Tests were performed on four implanted pacemakers with a saline phantom and correlated to a newly developed test method performed "in air" (without the phantom). Comparison of the simulator thresholds with tests performed in real WTMDs showed that the simulator is able to mimic the pacemaker interference. The interference thresholds found in the simulator indicate that pulsed magnetic fields are more likely to cause interference in pacemakers than sinusoidal fields. The security system simulator will help biomedical engineers, manufacturers of medical devices, and manufacturers of security systems to identify incompatible combinations of WTMDs and AIMDs early in the development stage.

587

Implications of a simple mathematical model to cancer cell population dynamics

Recent research in cancer progression and treatment indicates that many forms of cancer arise from the development of a small subpopulation of abnormal cancer stem cells (CSCs) that promote cancer growth and spread. Many potential treatments preferentially interact with cells at certain stages of the cell cycle by either selective killing or halting the cell cycle, such as intense, nanosecond-duration pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). Simple mathematical models of unfed cancer cell populations at the plateau of their growth characteristics may estimate the long-term consequences of these treatments on proliferating and quiescent cell populations. Applying such a model with no transition from the quiescent to proliferating state shows that it is possible for the proliferating cell population to fall below 1 if the quiescent cell population obtains a sufficient competitive advantage with respect to nutrient consumption and/or survival rate. Introducing small, realistic transition rates did not appreciably alter short-term or long-term population behaviour, indicating that the predicted small cell population behaviour (< 1 cell) is not an artefact of the simpler model. Experimental observations of nsPEF-induced effects on the cell cycle suggest that such a model may serve as a first step in assessing the viability of a given cancer treatment in vitro prior to clinical application.

588

Improved field localization in transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain with the utilization of a conductive shield plate in the stimulator

In this paper, a carefully designed conductive shield plate is presented, which helps to improve localization of the electric field distribution induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation for neuron stimulation. The shield plate is introduced between a figure-of-eight coil and the head. In order to accurately predict the field distribution inside the brain and to examine the effects of the shield plate, a realistic head model is constructed from magnetic resonance image data with the help of image processing tools and the finite-element method in three dimensions is employed. Finally, to show the improvements obtained, the results are compared with two conventional coil designs. It is found that an incorporation of the shield plate into the coil, effectively improves the induced field localization by more than 50%, and prevents other parts of the brain from exposure to high pulsed magnetic fields.

589

Improvement by picoTesla range magnetic fields of perceptual-motor performance and visual memory in a patient with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

The occurrence of cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been recognized since 1877 when Charcot first observed "enfeeblement of memory." It is now recognized that visuoperceptive and visuomotor deficits commonly occur in MS patients particularly in those with a chronic progressive course of the disease. Using various drawing tests as markers of constructional performance, we reported recently that treatment with picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) rapidly improved visuoperceptive and constructional abilities in patients with MS. We now report a 58 year old man with a 37 year history of chronic progressive MS in whom external application of MF in the picoTesla range produced rapid improvement of neurologic symptoms including walking, balance, sensory symptoms, and bladder functions. The patient's recovery was associated with a significant improvement in perceptual-motor functions as demonstrated on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and the Trail Making tests. Specifically, the patient demonstrated a 41% improvement over pretest values on copying the Complex figure and a 72% improvement in recall of the figure immediately after MF treatment. A further 4% improvement on copying the figure and a 27% improvement on recall was demonstrated 24 hours later. On the Trail Making test the patient demonstrated an overall improvement of 39% in Part A of the test and a 24% improvement in Part B of the test 24 hours after application of MF. These findings confirm the beneficial effects of picoTesla range MF in the treatment of MS and demonstrate the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in improving some of the cognitive deficits of the disease.

590

Improvement in short-term visual memory by weak electromagnetic fields in Parkinson's disease

Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive deficits ultimately leading in about 30% of patients to the development of dementia. These studies have demonstrated also a greater decrement of right hemispheric functions with visuospatial deficits occurring in up to 90% of PD patients. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) Test has been employed in the assessment of right hemispheric functions and particularly for the evaluation of visuoconstructive abilities and short-term visual memory. I have demonstrated recently that external application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity is an effective nonpharmacological modality in the management of the motor and cognitive deficits of Parkinsonism. In the present communication I present 3 fully medicated nondemented PD patients (mean age: 68 +/- 8.1 yrs; mean duration of illness: 9.0 +/- 4.0 yrs; mean disability on the Hoehn and Yahr scale: 3) who were tested on the ROCF Test before and after a series of treatments with EMFs. In response to the administration of EMFs the group demonstrated a mean of 23.1 +/- 13.6% improved performance on copy of the ROCF and a 39.3 +/- 13.4% improvement of short-term recall of the ROCF. These findings demonstrate that treatment with pT EMFs improves deficits in visuospatial functions and visual memory in Parkinsonism which usually remain unaffected during standard treatment with dopaminergic pharmacotherapy.

591

Improvement in word-fluency performance in Parkinson's disease by administration of electromagnetic fields

The association between degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system and the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) provided the impetus for the development of DA replacement therapy. However, clinical experience has demonstrated that DA-ergic drugs, while attenuating the motor symptoms of PD, have little or no consistent effect on the mental and cognitive symptoms of the disease which are thought to be related partly to degeneration of the meso-cortico-limbic DA system. Thus, failure of DA-ergic drugs to improve the mental and cognitive deficits of PD indicates that these agents cannot fully restore DA functions in the meso-cortico-limbic circuits. The present communication concerns five fully medicated Parkinsonian patients in whom application of a series of treatments with electromagnetic fields (EMF) of extremely low intensity (in the picotesla range) and frequency (5-8Hz) produced a dramatic improvement in performance on Thurstone's World-Fluency Test, a sensitive marker of frontal lobe functions. These findings suggest that in contrast to DA replacement therapy application of low intensity EMF may improve frontal lobe functions in patients with PD presumably by augmenting DA activity in the mesocortical system. As deficiency of the frontal DA system has been implicated also in the development of akinesia and freezing in PD these observations may explain the beneficial effects of EMF on the motor manifestations of the disease.

592

Improvement in word-fluency performance in patients with multiple sclerosis by electromagnetic fields

Impairment of cognitive functions is well recognized in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), especially those with a chronic progressive course. In fact, MS has been considered a type of "subcortical dementia" in which cognitive and behavioral abnormalities resemble those observed in patients with frontal lobe syndrome. Patients with frontal lobe syndrome are known to exhibit diverse cognitive and behavioral abnormalities which include, among others, diminished spontaneity of speech with difficulties producing appropriate words and phrases. It has been reported recently that extracranial application of extremely weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the picotesla range produced improvement in motor and cognitive functions in patients with MS. The present report concerns three women with MS (mean age: 44.3 +/- 8.5 yrs; mean duration of illness: 18.3 +/- 3.5 yrs), two with chronic progressive course and the third with a relapsing-remitting course in whom the Thurstone Word-Fluency Test, a reputed test of frontal lobe function, was administered prior to and following a series of 4 to 5 treatment sessions with EMF. Prior to the initiation of treatment with EMF all patients demonstrated word fluency performance which was well below age and sex-matched normal controls of similar level of education (mean output of MS patients was 42.6 +/- 1.1 words vs. 79.0 +/- 6.2 words of the controls). A series of treatments with EMF produced a 100% increase in word output within a short period of time (mean: 83.3 +/- 14.0 words). These findings suggest that this treatment modality improves frontal lobe functions in patients with MS and corroborate previous reports indicating beneficial effects of EMF on cognitive functions in these patients.

593

Improvement of body image perception in Parkinson's disease by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields

Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive deficits ultimately leading in about 30% of patients to the development of dementia. These studies have demonstrated also a greater decrement of right hemispheric functions which are manifested by visuospatial deficits occurring in up to 90% of PD patients. The Human Figure Drawing Test has been employed in the assessment of generalized intellectual deterioration and specifically in the evaluation of visuperceptive, visuospatial and visuoconstructional abilities in brain injured patients. I have demonstrated recently, on the basis of various drawing tests, that external application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improved visuoperceptive and visuospatial functions in Parkinsonian patients. In the present communication I present 4 fully medicated nondemented Parkinsonian patients who were administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of treatments with EMFs. The Human Figure Drawing Test was selected for the study specifically since it was shown to be sensitive to the effects of surgery to the basal ganglia in Parkinsonian patients. Prior to application of EMFs these patients' drawings showed distortion, poor perspective, impoverished facial expression, and lack of attention to details suggested poor body image perception related to right posterior hemispheric dysfunction. In response to the administration of EMFs the group demonstrated a striking improvement in the drawings particularly the depiction of the face the perception of which is localized to the right parietal lobe. These findings demonstrate that treatment with pT EMFs improves body image perception in Parkinsonian patients, a deficit which may remain unaffected by treatment with standard dopaminergic pharmacotherapy.

594

Improvement of right hemispheric functions in a child with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome by weak electromagnetic fields

Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a chronic, familial neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology characterized clinically by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics and by the presence of a variety of neurobehavioral and neurocognitive abnormalities including hyperactivity, self-multilatory behavior, obsessive-compulsive behavior, learning disabilities, and conduct disorder. On the basis of neuropsychological assessments it has been suggested that GTS is associated with greater right than left hemispheric dysfunction which accounts for decrements in visuospatial, visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills in these patients. Recent case studies have demonstrated that extracranial application of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla (pT) range intensity improves visuospatial and visuoperceptive functions in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. I now present a 6 1/2 year old boy with GTS in whom this treatment modality produced, in addition to symptomatic behavioral improvement, also improvement in visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills as evidenced on various drawing tasks particularly copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, a task which is especially vulnerable to right hemispheric functions. These findings suggest that pT range EMFs may be useful for the treatment of GTS and related disorders and also reverse some of the cognitive impairments associated with the disease which are related to right hemispheric dysfunction and which contribute to learning disabilities in these patients.

595

Improvements in technical assessment and protocol for EPR evaluation of magnetic fields effects on a radical pair reaction

The effects of either static or pulsed magnetic fields on the reaction rate of Fremy's salt-ascorbic acid were studied directly by EPR spectroscopy. Radical pair mechanism (RPM) accounts for the magnetic field effects, but the expected amounts are so small that they need to be observed with particular care with EPR technique. The method is based on the resolution of a pair of EPR signals by the addition of a stationary field gradient, where the signals are coming from the exposed and control capillary sample. To this purpose, a suitable device for the gradient generation was used. Others improvements were the strictly keeping of the same boundary temperature condition in the capillary pairs, obtained by a refrigerating system controlled by a thermocouple, and the use of a pair of Helmholtz coils to generate an external high homogeneous magnetic field. By this experimental set up, we found that the magnetic field induce the decrease of the studied radical reaction rate. This EPR approach is a significant alternative to the spectrophotometric one. Moreover, it offers the advantage to detect both the radicals and/or intermediates involved in the reaction.

596

Impulse magnetic field therapy for erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, pacebo-controlled study.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of 3 weeks of impulse magnetic-field therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty volunteers who suffered from ED or orgasmic disturbances were randomly assigned to either active treatment or placebo (n = 10 each). Efficacy was assessed in terms of intensity and duration of erection, general well-being, sexual activity, and warm sensation in the genital area. In the active-treatment group, all efficacy endpoints were significantly improved at study end (P < or = .01), with 80% reporting increases in intensity and duration of erection, frequency of genital warmth, and general well-being. The remaining 20%, who experienced minor improvements, were found to have an influenza-like infection after the study that may have influenced their results. Only 30% of the placebo group noted some improvement in their sexual activity; 70% had no change. No side effects were reported.

597

Impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

This 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia. One hundred one patients were randomly assigned to either active treatment (n = 50) or placebo (n = 51) and allocated to one of three diagnostic groups: (1) sleep latency; (2) interrupted sleep; or (3) nightmares. Efficacy endpoints were intensity of sleep latency, frequency of interruptions, sleepiness after rising, daytime sleepiness, difficulty with concentration, and daytime headaches. In the active-treatment group, the values of all criteria were significantly lower at study end (P < .00001). The placebo group also showed significant symptomatic improvement (P < .05), but the differences between groups were highly significant (P < .00001). Seventy percent (n = 34) of the patients given active treatment experienced substantial or even complete relief of their complaints; 24% (n = 12) reported clear improvement; 6% (n = 3) noted a slight improvement. Only one placebo patient (2%) had very clear relief; 49% (n = 23) reported slight or clear improvement; and 49% (n = 23) saw no change in their symptoms. No adverse effects of treatment were reported.

598

Impulse magnetic-field therapy for migraine and other headaches: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of 4 weeks of impulse magnetic-field therapy (16 Hz, 5 microTs), delivered through a small device, for different types of headache and migraine. Eighty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive either active treatment or placebo (n = 41 each) and were characterized according to one of seven diagnoses (migraine, migraine combined with tension, tension, cluster, weather-related, posttraumatic, or other). Efficacy was assessed in terms of duration, severity, and frequency of migraine and headache attacks, as well as ability to concentrate. Data for 77 patients were analyzed. In the active-treatment group, all assessed criteria were significantly improved at the end of the study (P < .0001 vs baseline and placebo). Seventy-six percent of active-treatment patients experienced clear or very clear relief of their complaints. Only 1 placebo-patient (2.5%) felt some relief; 8% noted slight and 2% reported significant worsening of symptoms. No side effects were noted.

599

In vitro exposure of human chondrocytes to pulsed electromagnetic fields

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation and survival of matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI)-derived cells was studied to ascertain the healing potential of PEMFs. MACI-derived cells were taken from cartilage biopsies 6 months after surgery and cultured. No dedifferentiation towards the fibro- blastic phenotype occurred, indicating the success of the surgical implantation. The MACI-derived cultured chondrocytes were exposed to 12 h/day (short term) or 4 h/day (long term) PEMFs exposure (magnetic field intensity, 2 mT; frequency, 75 Hz) and proliferation rate determined by flow cytometric analysis. The PEMFs exposure elicited a significant increase of cell number in the SG2M cell cycle phase. Moreover, cells isolated from MACI scaffolds showed the presence of collagen type II, a typical marker of chondrocyte functionality. The results show that MACI membranes represent an optimal bioengineering device to support chondrocyte growth and proliferation in surgical implants. The surgical implant of MACI combined with physiotherapy is suggested as a promising approach for a faster and safer treatment of cartilage traumatic lesions.

600

In vitro increase of the fluid-phase endocytosis induced by pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: importance of the electric field component

Nowadays, due to the wide use of mobile phones, the possible biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) become a public health general concern. Despite intensive research, there are no widely accepted theories about the interactions between EMFs and living cells, and the experimental data are often controversial. We examined the effects of mobile phones EMF (envelope frequency of 217 Hz, carrier frequency of 900 MHz and pulse duration of 580 micros) or its pure, low-frequency pulsed electric field component on fluid-phase endocytosis. In both cases, with exposures exceeding 10 min, an increase of the fluid-phase endocytosis rate was observed ( approximately 1.5-fold), on three different cell types. This increase is an all-or-nothing type of response that is occurring for threshold values comprised between 1.3 and 2.6 W/kg for the delivered EMF powers and between 1.1 and 1.5 V/cm for the electric fields intensities depending upon the cell type. The electric component of these EMFs is shown to be responsible for the observed increase. Variations of frequency or pulse duration of the electric pulses are shown to be without effect. Thus, EMF, via their electrical component, can perturb one of the most fundamental physiological functions of the cells-endocytosis.

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