iMRS 2000 - PEMF Publications
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PEMF Publications

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201

Comparison of bioactivity between GSM 900 MHz and DCS 1800 MHz mobile telephony radiation

An increasing number of studies find that pulsed Radio Frequency (RF), electromagnetic radiation of both systems of digital mobile telephony, established and commonly used in Europe during the last years, GSM 900 MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) and DCS 1800 MHz (Digital Cellular System), exert intense biological action on different organisms and cells (Hardell et al., 2006; Hyland, 2000; Kundi, 2004; Panagopoulos et al., 2004, 2007). The two types of cellular telephony radiation use different carrier frequencies and give different frequency spectra, but they usually also differ in intensity, as GSM 900 MHz antennas operate at about double the power output than the corresponding DCS 1800 MHz ones. In our present experiments, we used a model biological system, the reproductive capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, to compare the biological activity between the two systems of cellular mobile telephony radiation. Both types of radiation were found to decrease significantly and non thermally the insect's reproductive capacity, but GSM 900 MHz seems to be even more bioactive than DCS 1800 MHz. The difference seems to be dependent mostly on field intensity and less on carrier frequency.

202

Comparison of Suction Catheter versus Forceps Biopsy for Sampling of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules Guided by Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy

Background: Electromagnetic navigation has been approved for use as an adjunct to standard bronchoscopy. The diagnostic yield varies depending on the size of the lesion and successful navigation to the lesion. Objectives: The performance of two different biopsy tools, i.e. catheter aspiration and forceps biopsy, in the diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules (SPN) guided by electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) was examined. Methods: 54 patients referred for suspected lung cancer underwent ENB and 55 SPN (<3 cm) were sampled using both techniques. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) was used to verify the accuracy of target lesion localization by ENB. Primary end points of the study were successful navigation to the lesion and a positive diagnosis. Patients were followed until a definitive diagnosis was obtained. Results: All 55 lesions were accessed. Two lesions were excluded from data analysis as the patients were lost to follow-up and their diagnoses could not be confirmed. Of the remaining 53 lesions, 40 samples (75.5%) were diagnostic. Compared to forceps biopsy, catheter aspiration was positively correlated with the success rate (36/40 vs. 22/40; p = 0.035). The diagnostic yield was 93% when EBUS verified the lesion location after navigation and only 48% when lesion location was not confirmed. There were no significant complications. Conclusions: ENB is a useful tool in the evaluation of SPN <3 cm in diameter. For malignant lesions, sampling by catheter aspiration is associated with a higher diagnostic yield than sampling by forceps biopsy alone, in particular when EBUS could not confirm lesion location prior to sampling.

203

Comparison of ultrasound and electromagnetic field effects on osteoblast growth

This study compares the mechanisms of ultrasound (US) on osteoblast proliferation with those of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), by different signal transduction pathway inhibitors. The cells were stimulated for 15 min under US or for 2 h under PEMF exposure. Twenty-four h after the beginning of stimulation, the cells were harvested and used for mitochondrial activity test (MTT) analysis. The results showed that there are different transduction pathways for US and PEMF stimulation that lead to an upgrade of osteoblast proliferation, although their pathways all lead to an increase in cytocolic Ca2+ and activation of calmodulin. These findings offer a biochemical mechanism to support the process of ultrasound and PEMF-induced enhanced healing of bone fractures.

204

Comparison of various safety guidelines for electronic article surveillance devices with pulsed magnetic fields

The paper uses the two methods suggested in both the ICNIRP and proposed IEEE safety guidelines for compliance testing of security systems based on time-varying magnetic fields being introduced for electronic article surveillance (EAS), radiofrequency identification, and other applications. For nonsinusoidal pulses that are often used, the two procedures are to treat the exposure as a multifrequency exposure with various frequency components or to calculate the peak induced current densities or electric fields treating the highest of the pulses of duration t(p) as a single frequency, half sinusoid of the same duration and frequency 1/(2t(p)). Using either of the procedures, the induced current densities (J) or electric fields (E) are compared to the basic restrictions on J or E for compliance testing. Using a heterogeneous, tissue-classified anatomic model of the human body, we calculate the induced J and E for the various tissues for a realistic, EAS system for two typical nonsinusoidal pulses to show that the two methods give substantially different results. While the approximate but simpler method of treating the pulse as a half sinusoid results in peak induced J or E that may be compliant with safety guidelines, the rigorous method of treating such exposures as multifrequency exposures gives induced current densities or electric fields that may be up to twice as large, thus making such systems potentially noncompliant with the safety guidelines. Since it is more accurate, it is suggested that safety assessment based on the Fourier analysis leading to multifrequency components be used for compliance testing of such devices.

205

Congenital "pseudarthroses" of the tibia: treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields

34 patients with infantile non-union + pseudarthrosis were tx'd by PEMFs alone with 50% complete healing, 21% partial healing and 29% failure. PEMFs Have been demonstrated to be a potentially useful adjunct in the orthopedic surgeons armamentarium for treating infantile non-unions.

206

Construction and development of a time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism-photoelectron emission microscopy system using femtosecond laser pulses at BL25SU SPring-8

A femtosecond pulsed laser system has been installed at the BL25SU soft x-ray beamline at SPring-8 for time-resolved pump-probe experiments with synchronization of the laser pulses to the circularly polarized x-ray pulses. There are four different apparatuses situated at the beamline; for photoemission spectroscopy, two-dimensional display photoelectron diffraction, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) with electromagnetic coils, and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). All four can be used for time-resolved experiments, and preliminary investigations have been carried out using the PEEM apparatus to observe magnetization dynamics in combination with XMCD. In this article, we describe the details of the stroboscopic pump-probe XMCD-PEEM experiment, and present preliminary data. The repetition rate of the laser pulses is set using a pulse selector to match the single bunches of SPring-8's hybrid filling pattern, which consists of several single bunches and a continuous bunch train. Electrons ejected during the bunch train, which do not provide time-resolved signal, are eliminated by periodically reducing the channel plate voltage using a custom-built power supply. The pulsed laser is used to create 300 ps long magnetic field pulses, which cause magnetic excitations in micron-sized magnetic elements which contain magnetic vortex structures. The observed frequency of the motion is consistent with previously reported observations and simulations.

207

Construction of patient-specific surface models from MR images: application to bioelectromagnetism

Patient-specific geometric models are needed in many engineering problems. This work reports a novel software tool developed to construct individualized triangulated surface models from MR images. The program consists of three main parts: segmentation, triangulation and registration. The software tool was developed under the UNIX operating system. The application area demonstrated in this work is bioelectromagnetism but the program can be used as well in other engineering problems. The tool has been successfully applied in numerous cases, both for the thorax and the head.

208

Control by electrical parameters of short- and long-term cell death resulting from electropermeabilization of Chinese hamster ovary cells

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were pulsed by using brief intense square-wave electric field pulses. The electrical treatment induced a transient local permeabilization of the cell membrane. The growth of CHO cells after electropulsation in an iso-osmotic pulsing buffer with low ionic content was measured. Parallel experiments evaluated cell death which took place in the minute range after electropulsation (short-term death) and the cell death upon 24 h (long-term death). Short-term cell death was defined as the case of cells with membrane still permeable to Direct-blue at 15 min after electropulsation. It was observed only under stringent pulsing conditions where electropermeabilization of the two sides of the cell was triggered. The long-term cell death, i.e., the inability of some pulsed cells to grow was observed as soon as permeabilization had been triggered. The higher the permeabilization level of the cell population was, the higher the long-term cell death level was. The cell death was linearly related to the reciprocal of the electric field intensity, i.e., to the fraction of the membrane area electrically brought to the permeable state. From this work, it appeared that for high levels of permeabilization of a cell suspension, best cell survivals were obtained if limited alterations were triggered over a large area of the plasma membrane (single pulse with high intensity) than if a small area of the membrane was strongly altered (repetitive pulses with small intensity). The highest yield of viable permeabilized cells was achieved when using one single pulse of duration up to 1 ms.

209

Coordinated effects of electromagnetic field exposure on erythropoietin-induced activities of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

Initial studies with the erythropoietin-sensitive human hematopoietic cell line, TF1, demonstrated both multifarious effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on lipid signal transduction and antiproliferative effects of EMF. Stimulation of TF1 cells with erythropoietin resulted in increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity within 2 min. Addition of wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, produced a decrease in cell proliferation as measured by accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and suppression of erythropoietin-induced DNA synthesis. Similar effects on cell proliferation were seen under EMF treatment. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in erythropoietin-stimulated TF1 cells, measured in whole-cell extracts, increased 34% within 2 min and remained above basal levels for at least 20 min. EMF decreased erythropoietin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity to lower than basal levels. Additionally, translocation of the 85-kDa regulatory subunit (p85) of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the membrane was prevented by EMF. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C was activated, as reflected by increases in diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate at 15-60 s after EMF treatment. These results provide the first evidence of subtle coordinated changes by EMF associated with loss of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, inhibition of the translocation of p85 to the membrane, and activation of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C.

210

Correlation between pulsed electromagnetic fields exposure time and cell proliferation increase in human osteosarcoma cell lines and human normal osteoblast cells in vitro

We have exposed cultured bone cells to a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) for different times to find the minimal exposure time necessary to stimulate an increase of DNA synthesis. We used two different human osteosarcoma cell lines, TE-85 and MG-63, and human normal osteoblast cell (NHOC) obtained from surgical bone specimens. The cells were placed in multiwell plates and set in a tissue culture incubator between a pair of Helmoltz coils powered by a pulse generator (1.3-ms pulse, repeated at 75 Hz) for different periods of time. [3H]Thymidine incorporation was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The two osteosarcoma cell lines increase their thymidine incorporation when exposed to a PEMF for at least 30 min, both in a medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and in a serum-free medium. NHOC are known to increase their cell proliferation when exposed to PEMF but only if cultured in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. In this experimental condition, three of the four cell lineages studied required at least 9 h of PEMF exposure to increase their DNA synthesis, whereas one cell lineage increased its cell proliferation after 6 h of PEMF exposure. Our observations confirm the hypothesis that the proliferative responses of NHOC and human osteosarcoma cell lines to PEMF exposure are quite different. Moreover, NHOC required minimal exposure times to PEMF to increase their cell proliferation, similar to that needed to stimulate bone formation in vivo.

211

Coupling of stochastic electromagnetic beams into optical fibers

We derive a general analytic expression for the coupling efficiency when a partially coherent, partially polarized beam is coupled into a multimode optical fiber. We adopt the Gaussian-Schell model for incident electromagnetic beams and use our general result to discuss the effects of the partial coherence and partial polarization on the coupling efficiency of an optical beam focused onto a step-index, single-mode fiber with a lens. Our results should be useful for any application requiring coupling of partially coherent beams into optical fibers.

212

Curative effect of general geomagnetic therapy

Contractions of two magnetic therapy devices with constant and pulsed magnetic fields and results of biology and medical experiments are presented.

213

Current developments using emerging transdermal technologies in physical enhancement methods

Transdermal drug delivery using patches offers many advantages, but is limited primarily by the stratum corneum barrier. Amongst the various methods to overcome this barrier, physical methods are gaining in popularity and commercial devices development. Macroflux, MTS and Silex are based on microporation, involving use of microneedles that pierce thereby bypassing the stratum corneum. Intraject , Powderject and Helios are based on needleless jet injectors wherein very fine, solid particulate drug, is fired directly into the skin, using high-pressure gas. Med- Tats incorporate use of modified drug-containing tattoos, which bind to the skin, wherein the drug is absorbed. CHADD is based on use of heat, which increases skin - permeation of drugs. High-power, pulsed lasers transmit positive mechanical forces to the skin and create intercellular channels into the skin transiently. Sonophoresis involves use of ultrasound, which transiently disrupts the stratum corneum barrier. This technique offers a non-invasive transdermal extraction of interstitial fluids of sampling body fluids. Modified Liposomes include Ethosomes (containing alcohol) and Transferosomes (containing surfactants), which have enhanced skin permeability. Pulsed magnetic fields may create transient pores in cell membranes, including skin, resulting in increased permeation. Iontophoresis is based on application of electric potential for enhancing the movement of substances to and from the body. Dupel, Ionzyme, Liposite, ETrans, Phoresor and Drionic are based on iontophoresis. GlucoWatch offers non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, based on reverse iontophoresis. This review outlines recent commercial developments in physical transdermal drug delivery technology and the specific devices and applications being targeted by the pharmaceutical industry.

214

Current trends in the enhancement of biomaterial osteointegration: biophysical stimulation

To enhance bone implant osteointegration, many strategies for improving biomaterial properties have been developed which include optimization of implant material, implant design, surface morphology and osteogenetic coatings. Other methods that have been attempted to enhance endogenous bone healing around biomaterials are different forms of biophysical stimulations such as pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasounds (LIPUS), which were initially developed to accelerate fracture healing. To aid in the use of adjuvant biophysical therapies in the management of bone-implant osteointegration, the present authors reviewed experimental and clinical studies published in the literature over the last 20 years on the combined use of biomaterials and PEMFs or LIPUS, and summarized the methodology, and the possible mechanism of action and effectiveness of the different biophysical stimulations for the enhancement of bone healing processes around bone implanted biomaterials.

215

Curvature driven transport of mouse macrophages in a pulsating magnetic garnet film ratchet

Magnetic fields varying on the colloidal length scale are used for the directed transport of magnetically labeled biological cells. The transport is achieved by using the ratchet effect which relies on an asymmetric, symmetry broken periodic potential where nonequilibrium fluctuations or oscillations generate a net cell current. Ferrofluid ingested mouse macrophages were placed on a magnetic garnet film with alternating stripe domain patterns, and a pulsating magnetic potential is provided by superposing an oscillating magnetic field normal to the film. The symmetry of the resulting periodic stripe potential is broken locally by the curvature of the stripes. We show, both experimentally and theoretically, the curvature of such stripes required for inducing directed transport of the macrophages in the ratchet. This may be useful for microfluidic devices such as a digital colloidal shift register for magnetically labeled biological cells.

216

Cytofluorometry of electromagnetically controlled cell dedifferentiation

Cellular morphology changes, which appear related to dedifferentiation (despecialization), have been produced in vitro in the nucleated red blood cell of the frog. This has been achieved by controlled alterations in the electrochemical environment of these living cells, both by a selective modification of the ionic concentrations of an isotonic amphibian Ringer solution, and by the electromagnetic induction of pulsating current having specific waveform parameters. Laser flow microfluorometry shows that the modified Ringer solution is able, per se, to partially trigger the process in the same time interval that certain induced current waveforms can significantly affect the number of cells in the so-called dedifferentiated state. It has also been found that, for a given waveform, the repetition rate appears to have a significant effect on the rate of cell change. Preliminary automated image analysis of cell smears suggests that dedifferentiated and normal cells have the same integrated optical density but different nuclear areas. In conclusion, it appears that, after the initial electrochemical trigger, the early stage of the process, when the cells move from a state of specialized function to one of less specific activity, is the unfolding of their chromatin supercoil, not involving DNA synthesis. Then cytofluorometry allowed us to identify, for the first time, fundamental modifications which occur in the cell nucleus under electromagnetic exposure.

217

Cytokine release from osteoblasts in response to different intensities of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation

We use an in-vitro osteoblast cell culture model to investigate the effects of low-frequency (7.5 Hz) pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on osteoblast population, cytokines (prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), transforming growth factor beta1(TGFbeta1), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity to find the optimal intensity of PEMF for osteoblast growth. The results demonstrate that PEMF can stimulate osteoblast growth, release of TGFbeta1, and, in addition, an increase of ALP activity. The synthesis and release of PGE(2) in the culture medium are reduced with increasing numbers of cells. Higher intensity does not necessarily mean increased osteoblast growth, and the most efficient intensity is about 2 mV/cm in this case. Although the lower intensities of the PEMF are yet to be determined, the results of this study can shed light on the mechanisms of PEMF stimulation on non union fracture therapy and osteoporosis prevention in the future.

218

Daily Isocenter Correction with Electromagnetic-based Localization Improves Target Coverage and Rectal Sparing During Prostate Radiotherapy

PURPOSE: To evaluate dosimetric consequences of daily isocenter correction during prostate cancer radiation therapy using the Calypso 4D localization system. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were analyzed from 28 patients with electromagnetic transponders implanted in their prostates for daily target localization and tracking. Treatment planning isocenters were recorded based on the values of the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral axes. Isocenter location obtained via alignment with skin tattoos was compared with that obtained via the electromagnetic localization system. Daily isocenter shifts, based on the isocenter location differences between the two alignment methods in each spatial axis, were calculated for each patient over their entire course. The mean isocenter shifts were used to determine dosimetric consequences of treatment based on skin tattoo alignments alone. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD of the percentages of treatment days with shifts beyond 0.5 cm for vertical, longitudinal and lateral shifts were 62% 28%, 35% 26%, and 38% 21%, respectively. If daily electromagnetic localization was not used, the excess in prescribed dose delivered to 70% of the rectum was 10 Gy and the deficit in prescribed dose delivered to 95% of the planning target volume was 10 Gy. The mean isocenter shift was not associated with the volumes of the prostate, rectum, or bladder, or with patient body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Daily isocenter localization can reduce the treatment dose to the rectum. Correcting for this variability could lead to improved dose delivery, reduced side effects, and potentially improved treatment outcomes.

219

de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in the underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.5

The de Haas-van Alphen effect was observed in the underdoped cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.5 via a torque technique in pulsed magnetic fields up to 59 T. Above a field of approximately 30 T the magnetization exhibits clear quantum oscillations with a single frequency of 540 T and a cyclotron mass of 1.76 times the free electron mass, in excellent agreement with previously observed Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The oscillations obey the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich formula of Fermi-liquid theory. This thermodynamic observation of quantum oscillations confirms the existence of a well-defined, closed, and coherent, Fermi surface in the pseudogap phase of cuprates.

221

Decibel attenuation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in blood and cortical bone determined experimentally and from the theory of ohmic losses

We studied the PEMF power attenuation in tissues representative of clinical applications (blood and cortical bone) to determine the amount of power available for PEMF purported biological effects. The experimental system consisted of a pair of nearly circular, parallel and coaxial coils separated by a distance of one coil diameter. The power attenuation was measured using a small search coil connected to a digital oscilloscope. The coils were powered by a voltage switch operating at two different frequencies (3.8 and 63 kHz) producing bursts of pulses (numbering 21 and 1619) and triggered at two different frequencies (1.5 and 15 Hz, respectively). The tissue samples were placed inside the coils so as to expose them to either transverse electric field (at the center of coils) or the transverse magnetic field (at the coil wire). The cylindrical coil geometry yielded closed-form expressions for power attenuation based on magnetic diffusion equation and ohmic losses due to bulk tissue magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. The measured power attenuation at these PEMF frequencies of not more than one decibel (1 dB) was well explained by the theory for the 3.8 kHz but less so for the 63 kHz frequency PEMF. The results provide important insights regarding physical mechanism of weak PEMF power dissipation in tissues.

222

Deconvolution of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) maps

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method for local stimulation of cerebral cortex using a small coil's pulsed magnetic field. TMS response maps consist of measured responses to stimulations at points on a scalp-referenced grid and are used to study the topography of the brain's inhibitory and excitatory response. Because the magnetic field distributions of stimulation coils are 1-2 centimeters wide and 2-3 centimeters long, and the induced electric fields are even broader, the resolution of TMS maps is limited and the actual region of cortical stimulation is poorly defined. To better characterize the activation pattern, a practical mathematical procedure was developed for deconvolving a spherical model approximation of the coil's induced electric field distribution (here measured in a phantom) from the TMS response maps. This procedure offers an integrated, internally consistent method for processing TMS response maps to estimate the spatial distribution of motor cortex activations and inhibitions.

223

Degradative pathways in cultured synovial fibroblasts: selective effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields

A cell culture model for studying the cytokine-mediated degradation of connective tissue was exposed to clinically applied, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), and levels of collagenolytic activity, two lysosomal hydrolases, and prostaglandin E2 were measured. PEMFs reduced the release of two lysosomal enzymes by cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts but did not affect their response to mononuclear-cell-conditioned medium. PEMF did not alter levels of cytokine activity produced by a mixed mononuclear cell population, nor did they affect the cytokine-mediated release of collagenase or prostaglandin E2 by synovial fibroblasts. The relevance of these findings to the clinical application of PEMF to soft- and hard-tissue injuries is discussed.

224

Designed electromagnetic pulsed therapy: clinical applications

First reduced to science by Maxwell in 1865, electromagnetic technology as therapy received little interest from basic scientists or clinicians until the 1980s. It now promises applications that include mitigation of inflammation (electrochemistry) and stimulation of classes of genes following onset of illness and injury (electrogenomics). The use of electromagnetism to stop inflammation and restore tissue seems a logical phenomenology, that is, stop the inflammation, then upregulate classes of restorative gene loci to initiate healing. Studies in the fields of MRI and NMR have aided the understanding of cell response to low energy EMF inputs via electromagnetically responsive elements. Understanding protein iterations, that is, how they process information to direct energy, we can maximize technology to aid restorative intervention, a promising step forward over current paradigms of therapy.

225

Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings

Many species of butterflies exhibit interesting optical phenomena due to structural color. The physical reason for this color is subwavelength features on the surface of a single scale. The exposed surface of a scale is covered with a ridge structure. The fully three-dimensional, periodic, finite-difference time-domain method is used to create a detailed electromagnetic model of a generic ridge. A novel method for presenting the three-dimensional observed color pattern is developed. Using these tools, the change in color that is a result of varying individual features of the scale is explored. Computational models are developed that are similar to three butterflies: Morpho rhetenor, Troides magellanus, and Ancyluris meliboeus.

226

Development of a light scattering solver applicable to particles of arbitrary shape on the basis of the surface-integral equations method of Muller type. I. Methodology, accuracy of calculation, and electromagnetic current on the particle surface

We develop a numerical algorithm for calculating the light-scattering properties of small particles of arbitrary shape on the basis of a method involving surface integral equations. The calculation error was estimated by performing a comparison between the proposed method and the exact Mie method with regard to the extinction efficiency factor, and the results show that the error is less than 1% when four or more nodes per wavelength are set on the surface of a spherical particle. The accuracy fluctuates in accordance with the distribution of nodal points on the particle surface with respect to the direction of propagation of the incident light. From our examinations, it is shown that the polar incidence alignment yields higher accuracy than equator incidence when a "latitude-longitude" type of mesh generation is adopted. The electric currents on the particle surface and the phase functions of all scattering directions are shown for particles shaped as spheres or hexagonal columns. It is shown that the phase function for a hexagonal column has four or eight cold spots. The phase function of a randomly oriented hexagonal column shows halolike peaks with size parameters of up to 20. This method can be applied to particles with a size parameter of up to about 20 without using the symmetry characteristic of the particle.

227

Development of chicken embryos following exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields with differing waveforms

Previous studies in my laboratory have revealed a reproducible and statistically significant increase in the number of malformations in live chicken embryos that had been exposed during the first 48 h of incubation to a pulsed magnetic field (unipolar pulses, 100-pps, 1-microT peak density). In marked contrast, no adverse effect was seen following similar exposure to 60-Hz, bipolar, unipolar, or split-sine waves at 3-microT peak-to-peak. In the four experiments comprising the present study, differences in the numbers of malformations between control and experimental groups were not statistically significant. Field-free incubation for an additional 72 h after exposure to a bipolar sine wave for 48 h resulted in an increase in normal live embryos in both control and treated groups.

228

Development of chicken embryos in a pulsed magnetic field

Six independent experiments of common design were performed in laboratories in Canada, Spain, Sweden, and the United States of America. Fertilized eggs of domestic chickens were incubated as controls or in a pulsed magnetic field (PMF); embryos were then examined for developmental anomalies. Identical equipment in each laboratory consisted of two incubators, each containing a Helmholtz coil and electronic devices to develop, control, and monitor the pulsed field and to monitor temperature, relative humidity, and vibrations. A unipolar, pulsed, magnetic field (500-microseconds pulse duration, 100 pulses per s, 1-microT peak density, and 2-microseconds rise and fall time) was applied to experimental eggs during 48 h of incubation. In each laboratory, ten eggs were simultaneously sham exposed in a control incubator (pulse generator not activated) while the PMF was applied to ten eggs in the other incubator. The procedure was repeated ten times in each laboratory, and incubators were alternately used as a control device or as an active source of the PMF. After a 48-h exposure, the eggs were evaluated for fertility. All embryos were then assayed in the blind for development, morphology, and stage of maturity. In five of six laboratories, more exposed embryos exhibited structural anomalies than did controls, although putatively significant differences were observed in only two laboratories (two-tailed Ps of .03 and less than .001), and the significance of the difference in a third laboratory was only marginal (two-tailed P = .08). When the data from all six laboratories are pooled, the difference in incidence of abnormalities in PMF-exposed embryos (approximately 25 percent) and that of controls (approximately 19 percent), although small, is highly significant, as is the interaction between incidence of abnormalities and laboratory site (both Ps less than .001). The factor or factors responsible for the marked variability of inter-laboratory differences are unknown.

229

Development of high-pressure, high-field and multifrequency electron spin resonance system

The electron spin resonance (ESR) system which covers the magnetic field region up to 16 T, the quasicontinuous frequency region from 60 to 700 GHz, the temperature region from 1.8 to 4.2 K, and the hydrostatic pressure region up to 1.1 GPa has been developed. This is the first pulsed high-field and multifrequency ESR system with the pressure region over 1 GPa as far as we know. Transmission ESR spectra under hydrostatic pressure can be obtained by combining a piston-cylinder-type pressure cell and the pulsed magnetic field ESR apparatus. The pressure cell consists of a NiCrAl cylinder and sapphire or zirconia inner parts. The use of sapphire or zirconia as inner parts enables us to observe ESR under pressure because these inner parts have high transmittance for the electromagnetic wave with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We have successfully applied this system for the pressure dependence measurements of an isolated spin system NiSnCl(6)6H(2)O up to 1.1 GPa. It was found that the single ion anisotropy parameter D of this compound strongly depends on pressure. The parameter D is approximately proportional to the pressure up to 0.75 GPa, and the relation between D and the pressure can be used for the pressure calibration of this high-field and high-pressure ESR system.

230

Development of numerical phantoms by MRI for RF electromagnetic dosimetry: a female model

Numerical human models for electromagnetic dosimetry are commonly obtained by segmentation of CT or MRI images and complex permittivity values are ascribed to each issue according to literature values. The aim of this study is to provide an alternative semi-automatic method by which non-segmented images, obtained by a MRI tomographer, can be automatically related to the complex permittivity values through two frequency dependent transfer functions. In this way permittivity and conductivity vary with continuity--even in the same tissue--reflecting the intrinsic realistic spatial dispersion of such parameters. A female human model impinged by a plane wave is tested using finite-difference time-domain algorithm and the results of the total body and layer-averaged specific absorption rate are reported.

231

Developmental Instability as a Means of Assessing Stress in Plants: A Case Study Using Electromagnetic Fields and Soybeans

Developmental instability is often assessed using deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry. Here, we review the literature describing previous studies, suggest mechanisms that may account for both the generation and disruption of bilateral symmetry, and examine the influence of electromagnetic fields on the asymmetry of soybean leaves. Leaves from plants under high-voltage power lines generating pulsed magnetic fields of <3 to >50 mG were more asymmetrical for two parameters (the terminal leaflet widths and lateral rachilla lengths) than leaves of plants even 50 or 100 m away from power lines. This asymmetry could not be attributed to either size scaling or measurement error.

232

Differences in lethality between cancer cells and human lymphocytes caused by LF-electromagnetic fields

The lethal response of cultured cancer cells lines K-562, U-937, DG-75, and HL-60 were measured directly after a 4 h exposure to a pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF, sinusoidal wave form, 35 mT peak, 50 Hz) [Traitcheva et al. (2003): Bioelectromagnetics 24:148-158] and 24 h later, to determine the post-exposure effect. The results were found to depend on the medium, pH value, conductivity, and temperature. From these experiments, suitable conditions were chosen to compare the vitality between K-562 cells and normal human lymphocytes after PEMF treatment and photodynamic action. Both agents enhance necrosis synergistically for diseased as well as for healthy cells, but the lymphocytes are more resistant. The efficacy of PEMF on the destruction of cancer cells is further increased by heating (hyperthermia) of the suspension up to 44 degrees C or by lowering the pH-value (hyperacidity) to pH 6.4. Similar apoptosis and necrosis can be obtained using moderate magnetic fields (B < or = 15 mT 50/60 Hz), but this requires longer treatment of at least over a week. PEMF application combined with anticancer drugs and photodynamic therapy will be very effective.

234

Diffusion measurements using the nonlinear stimulated echo

The nonlinear stimulated echo that is generated by a sequence of three radiofrequency pulses, 90 degrees-tau(1)-90 degrees-tau(2)-45 degrees, in high magnetic fields (or at low temperatures) in the presence of pulsed or steady field gradients can be applied for measurements of the diffusion coefficient. Corresponding test experiments are reported. Steady gradients can be used without knowledge of the relaxation times. Remarkably the attenuation of the nonlinear stimulated echo by diffusion is substantially stronger than in the case of the ordinary stimulated echo.

235

Dipole-induced vortex ratchets in superconducting films with arrays of micromagnets

We investigate the transport properties of superconducting films with periodic arrays of in-plane magnetized micromagnets. Two different magnetic textures are studied: a square array of magnetic bars and a close-packed array of triangular microrings. As confirmed by magnetic force microscopy imaging, the magnetic state of both systems can be adjusted to produce arrays of almost pointlike magnetic dipoles. By carrying out transport measurements with ac drive, we observed experimentally a recently predicted ratchet effect induced by the interaction between superconducting vortices and the magnetic dipoles. Moreover, we find that these magnetic textures produce vortex-antivortex patterns, which have a crucial role in the transport properties of this hybrid system.

236

Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species

The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dosedependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1, which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase- 1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. Bioelectromagnetics 29:47–54, 2008.

237

Direct observation of f-pair magnetic field effects and time-dependence of radical pair composition using rapidly switched magnetic fields and time-resolved infrared methods

A rapidly switched (<10 ns) magnetic field was employed to directly observe magnetic fields from f-pair reactions of radical pairs in homogeneous solution. Geminate radical pairs from the photoabstraction reaction of benzophenone from cyclohexanol were observed directly using a pump-probe pulsed magnetic field method to determine their existence time. No magnetic field effects from geminate pairs were observed at times greater than 100 ns after initial photoexcitation. By measuring magnetic field effects for fields applied continuously only after this initial geminate period, f-pair effects could be directly observed. Measurement of the time-dependence of the field effect for the photolysis of 2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone in cyclohexanol using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy revealed not only the presence of f-pair magnetic field effects but also the ability of the time dependence of the MARY spectra to observe the changing composition of the randomly encountering pairs throughout the second order reaction period.

238

Directed and enhanced neurite growth with pulsed magnetic field stimulation

Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) stimulation was applied to mammalian neurons in vitro to influence axonal growth and to determine whether induced current would direct and enhance neurite growth in the direction of the current. Two coils were constructed from individual sheets of copper folded into a square coil. Each coil was placed in a separate water-jacketed incubator. One was energized by a waveform generator driving a power amplifier, the other was not energized. Whole dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant cultures from 15-day Sprague-Dawley rat embryos were established in supplemented media plus nerve growth factor (NGF) at concentrations of 0-100 ng/mL on a collagen-laminin substrate. Dishes were placed at the center of the top and bottom of both coils, so that the DRG were adjacent to the current flowing in the coil. After an initial 12 h allowing DRG attachment to the substrate floor, one coil was energized for 18 h, followed by a postexposure period of 18 h. Total incubation time was 48 h for all DRG cultures. At termination, DRG were histochemically stained for visualization and quantitative analysis of neurite outgrowth. Direction and length of neurite outgrowth were recorded with respect to direction of the current. PMF exposed DRG exhibited asymmetrical growth parallel to the current direction with concomitant enhancement of neurite length. DRG cultures not PMF exposed had a characteristic radial pattern of neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that PMF may offer a noninvasive mechanism to direct and promote nerve regeneration.

239

Disruption of magnetic orientation in hatchling loggerhead sea turtles by pulsed magnetic fields

Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) derive both directional and positional information from the Earth's magnetic field, but the mechanism underlying magnetic field detection in turtles has not been determined. One hypothesis is that crystals of biogenic, single-domain magnetite provide the physical basis of the magnetic sense. As a first step toward determining if magnetite is involved in sea turtle magnetoreception, hatchling loggerheads were exposed to pulsed magnetic fields (40 mT, 4 ms rise time) capable of altering the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. A control group of turtles was treated identically but not exposed to the pulsed fields. Both groups of turtles subsequently oriented toward a light source, implying that the pulsed fields did not disrupt the motivation to swim or the ability to maintain a consistent heading. However, when swimming in darkness under conditions in which turtles normally orient magnetically, control turtles oriented significantly toward the offshore migratory direction while those that were exposed to the magnetic pulses did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that at least part of the sea turtle magnetoreception system is based on magnetite. In principle, a magnetite-based magnetoreception system might be involved in detecting directional information, positional information, or both.

240

DNA damage in frog erythrocytes after in vitro exposure to a high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic field

Till the present time, the genotoxic effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic fields (HPPP EMF) on cultured cells have not been studied. We investigated possible genotoxic effects of HPPP EMF (8.8 GHz, 180 ns pulse width, peak power 65 kW, repetition rate 50 Hz) on erythrocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis. We used the alkaline comet assay, which is a highly sensitive method to assess DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile lesions. Blood samples were exposed to HPPP EMF for 40 min in rectangular wave guide. The specific absorption rate (SAR) calculated from temperature kinetics was about 1.6 kW/kg (peak SAR was about 300 MW/kg). The temperature rise in the blood samples at steady state was 3.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data show that the increase in DNA damage after exposure of erythrocytes to HPPP EMF was induced by the rise in temperature in the exposed cell suspension. This was confirmed in experiments in which cells were incubated for 40 min under the corresponding temperature conditions. The results allow us to conclude that HPPP EMF-exposure at the given modality did not cause any a-thermal genotoxic effect on frog erythrocytes in vitro.

241

DNA repair after gamma irradiation in lymphocytes exposed to low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields

The effect of exposure to extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on DNA repair capability and on cell survival in human lymphocytes damaged in vitro with gamma rays was studied by two different micromethods. In the first assay, which measures DNA repair synthesis (unscheduled DNA synthesis, UDS), lymphocyte cultures were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 66 h and then treated with hydroxyurea (which blocks DNA replication), irradiated with 100 Gy of 60Co, pulsed with [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR), and then exposed to pulsed EMFs for 6 h (the period in which cells repaired DNA damage). In the second assay, which measures cell survival after radiation or chemical damage, lymphocytes were first irradiated with graded doses of gamma rays or treated with diverse antiproliferative agents, and then stimulated with PHA, cultured for 72 h, and pulsed with [3H]TdR for the last 6 h of culture. In this case, immediately after the damage induced by either the radiation or chemicals, cultures were exposed to pulsed EMFs for 72 h, during which cell proliferation took place. Exposure to pulsed EMFs did not affect either UDS or cell survival, suggesting that this type of nonionizing radiation--to which humans may be exposed in the environment, and which is used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes--does not affect DNA repair mechanisms.

242

Does head-only exposure to GSM-900 electromagnetic fields affect the performance of rats in spatial learning tasks?

The rapid expansion of mobile communication has generated intense interest, but has also fuelled ongoing concerns. In both humans and animals, radiofrequency radiations are suspected to affect cognitive functions. More specifically, several studies performed in rodents have suggested that spatial learning can be impaired by electromagnetic field exposure. However, none of these previous studies have simulated the common conditions of GSM mobile phones use. This study is the first using a head-only exposure system emitting a 900-MHz GSM electromagnetic field (pulsed at 217 Hz). The two behavioural tasks that were evaluated here have been used previously to demonstrate performance deficits in spatial learning after electromagnetic field exposure: a classical radial maze elimination task and a spatial navigation task in an open-field arena (dry-land version of the Morris water maze). The performances of rats exposed for 45 min to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (1 and 3.5 W/kg) were compared to those of sham-exposed and cage-control rats. There were no differences among exposed, sham, and cage-control rats in the two spatial learning tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential reasons that led previous studies to conclude that learning deficits do occur after electromagnetic field exposure.

243

Double-blind study of pulsing magnetic field effects on multiple sclerosis.

We performed a double-blind study to measure the clinical and subclinical effects of an alternative medicine magnetic device on disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The MS patients were exposed to a magnetic pulsing device (Enermed) where the frequency of the magnetic pulse was in the 4-13 Hz range (50-100 milliGauss). A total of 30 MS patients wore the device on preselected sites between 10 and 24 hours a day for 2 months. Half of the patients (15) randomly received an Enermed device that was magnetically inactive and the other half received an active device. Each MS patient received a set of tests to evaluate MS disease status before and after wearing the Enermed device. The tests included (1) a clinical rating (Kurtzke, EDSS), (2) patient-reported performance scales, and (3) quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) during a language task. Although there was no significant change between pretreatment and posttreatment in the EDSS scale, there was a significant improvement in the performance scale (PS) combined rating for bladder control, cognitive function, fatigue level, mobility, spasticity, and vision (active group -3.83 +/- 1.08, p < 0.005; placebo group -0.17 +/- 1.07, change in PS scale). There was also a significant change between pretreatment and posttreatment in alpha EEG magnitude during the language task recorded at various electrode sites on the left side. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we have demonstrated a statistically significant effect of the Enermed magnetic pulsing device on patient performance scales and on alpha EEG magnitude during a language task.

244

Dynamics of p-terphenyl crystals at the phase transition temperature: a zero-field EPR study of the photoexcited triplet state of pentacene in p-terphenyl crystals

Pulsed zero-field electron paramagnetic resonance free induction decay (ZF EPR FID) techniques are employed to study the phase transition of p-terphenyl crystals (Tc = 193 K) by measuring selectively populated photoexcited triplet ZF transitions of dilute pentacene molecules in p-terphenyl single crystals. The sensitivity of ZF spectroscopy to small shifts in local magnetic fields enables the studies of guest-host configuration changes over a wide temperature range. Here we report the observation of guest pentacene (-h(14) and -d(14)) triplet ZF EPR FID spectra that disappear abruptly at Tc and of spectral broadening and shift below Tc. We interpret these spectral changes as evidence for guest couplings to host phenyl rings. Further, these data allow assignments of spectroscopic sites to crystallographic sites that occur in the phase transition.

245

Early effects of electrical stimulation on osteogenesis

The mechanism by which electrical stimulation causes osteogenesis is unknown. Bone marrow of the rabbit was stimulated by direct electrical current or electromagnetic fields to clarify the mechanism of osteogenesis by electrical stimulation. A total of 105 rabbits were separated into five groups: a direct current stimulation by Kirshner wire insertion group; a pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation (PEMF) group; a PEMF with Kirshner wire insertion group; a Kirshner wire insertion group; and an intramedullary drilling control group. Measurement of intramedullary new bone formation and determination of alkaline phosphatase activity within the bone marrow were performed. Argylophilic nuclear organizer region (AgNOR) staining was done to evaluate the change in proliferative activity of the osteoblasts during electrical stimulation. In the direct current stimulation group and the PEMF accompanied by the insertion of the Kirshner wire group, alkaline phosphatase activity in the bone marrow and AgNOR staining increased at 7 days after surgery. At 14 days after surgery, alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferative activity of osteoblast were significantly higher in these two groups than in the other groups (PEMF group, Kirshner wire insertion alone group, intramedullary drilling group). Intramedullary new bone formation was most active in the direct current stimulation group. Electromagnetic stimulation of the inserted Kirshner wire also promoted bone formation significantly. The Kirshner wire insertion alone group and the intramedullary drilling group showed bone formation, but it was significantly less. Electromagnetic stimulation without the insertion of the Kirshner wire showed little bone formation. These findings revealed that the degree of osteogenesis induced by electrical stimulation is influenced by the tissue environment, and that osteogenesis is promoted markedly when electrical stimulation is provided in the environment of inflammation and reactive cells.

246

Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7. METHODS: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were > or = 1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years. RESULTS: Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 1.09 [1.02-1.16]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.

247

ECG artifacts during intraoperative high-field MRI scanning

High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (1.5 T) has recently been introduced into the neurosurgical operating room for intraoperative resection control and functional neuronavigational guidance. However, long-lasting neurosurgical procedures in an operating room equipped with a high-field MRI scanner raise new challenges to the anesthesiologist. In particular, monitoring of vital signs during anesthesia requires equipment compatible with working in close vicinity to the strong magnetic field. However, even MRI-compatible electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring interferes with electromagnetic fields, so several ECG artifacts can be observed in static and pulsed magnetic fields. As shown in this study, pulsed high-frequency fields induce characteristic field frequency-based artifacts in the ECG that can imitate malignant arrhythmia or provoke ST-segment abnormalities. The knowledge of possible and characteristic ECG artifacts during high-field MRI is therefore essential to prevent misinterpretation. Moreover, interference-free parameters such as pulse oximetry or invasive blood pressure curves are highly relevant during intraoperative MRI scans.

248

Echoplanar BOLD fMRI of brain activation induced by concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The authors demonstrate the feasibility of combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) inside an MR scanner to noninvasively stimulate and image regional brain activity. METHODS: Echoplanar blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-based fMRI studies of TMS response were performed on three human volunteers inside a standard 1.5 T MR scanner using independent computer control to interleave echoplanar image acquisition and stimulation of right thumb primary motor cortex with a nonferromagnetic TMS coil. RESULTS: Significant (P< 0.001) response was observed in motor cortex under the TMS coil during stimulation compared to rest, as well in auditory cortex, the latter presumably due to the loud "snap" when the coil was pulsed. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent TMS stimulation and echoplanar BOLD fMRI imaging is possible. This method has potential for tracing neural circuits with brain imaging, as well as investigating the effects of TMS.

249

Effect of 72 Hz pulsed magnetic field exposure on macromolecular synthesis in CCRF-CEM cells

Cells from the T-lymphoblastoid cell line, CCRF-CEM, have been exposed in vitro to a quasirectangular, asymmetric electromagnetic field pulsed at 72 Hz at 37 degrees for periods of 30 min to 24 h. RNA synthesis, assessed by incorporation of 3H-uridine, increased (relative to control cells) 2-fold after 30 min in exposed cells and achieved its greatest increase of 3.2-fold relative to controls after 2 h exposure. Increased precursor incorporation was observed at all subsequent exposure times up to 24 h. Synthesis of mRNA was similar, but not identical to that observed with total cellular RNA. Additionally, protein synthesis, determined by incorporation of radioactive precursor into acid-precipitable material, was increased 2.8-fold, compared to controls, after 2 h exposure. Longer exposure times resulted in an exponential decrease in precursor incorporation to 1.1-times control levels after 24 h. Using a dye reduction assay, mitochondrial activity was also found to be increased over a 24 h exposure period. No effect of electromagnetic field exposure was found on cellular synthesis of DNA. These data are generally consistent with other reports documenting effects of electromagnetic field exposure on macromolecular synthesis in vitro.

250

Effect of 72 Hz pulsed magnetic field exposure on ras p21 expression in CCRF-CEM cells

CCRF-CEM T-lymphoblastoid cells have been exposed to an asymmetric electromagnetic signal pulsed at 72 Hz for up to 28 hr. Following exposure, cells were lysed and extracted, and the extract was electrophoresed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes and the product of the ras proto-oncogenes, p21, was identified and quantitated by successive treatment with pan ras p21 antibody, second antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, and enzyme substrate. No changes in p21 levels were observed for the first 6 h of electromagnetic field exposure as compared to unexposed control cells. However, from 6-16 h exposure, p21 levels in exposed cells decreased linearly to only 30% of control values. From 16-28 h exposure, p21 levels in exposed cells increased nearly linearly to control cell values. Slot-blot analysis indicated that altered p21 protein expression is a result, at least in part, of changes in the levels of N-ras mRNA. No concomitant changes were detected in either cyclic AMP levels or in the expression of cell surface markers. While the significance of the marked reduction in cellular p21 is unclear, it does not appear to be related to cell differentiation.

251

Effect of a 9 mT pulsed magnetic field on C3H/Bi female mice with mammary carcinoma. A comparison between the 12 Hz and the 460 Hz frequencies

In a previous experiment, the exposure of tumoral C3H/Bi female mice to a 9 mT, 460 Hz pulsed magnetic field led to an increase in the length of survival in the late period of the disease; this might be due to a hampered metastatic process. In the present study 27 controls and 52 exposed mice were treated with the same protocol (a 10-minute exposure, 3 non-consecutive days a week, from 2-3 weeks after the tumors appeared until death) but with a 12 Hz PMF. In this experiment the 12 Hz PMF appeared to increase length of survival times in the early period of the disease.

252

Effect of a pulsed magnetic field and of first cold-pressure sunflower oil on mice

In previous studies it has been shown that exposure of mice to a 12-Hz 6 mT unipolar square pulsed magnetic field (PMF) suppressed the excess of weight due to application of 1st cold-pressure sunflower oil. This time we considered the effect of oil and/or PMF on the growing curves lifespans of mice. The exposure took place for 30 min 5 days a week, from the 7th week of life to death. The results are 1) a broken slope in the growing curves from the 125th day of aging: the exposed mice were lighter than the controls, keeping the differences between the growing curves needed a repeated exposure all life long; 2) a significant increase in the lifespan of the controls which received oil versus the controls which received water; 3) an increase in the lifespan of the exposed mice versus the non-exposed control batches. On one hand it has been reported that essential polyunsaturated fatty acids found in first cold-pressure sunflower oil played a prominent role in membrane structures and in immune equilibrium. On the other hand, it was shown that oscillating electric fields could activate Na+K+-ATPase.

253

Effect of a pulsed magnetic field on healthy mice: a study of the weight of the thymus

The hypothesis that magnetic fields act only on deficient functions has been tested through the weight of the thymus in mice. The involution of the thymus in mice is known to begin early in life. It is marked by a decrease in weight. Female Swiss mice of different ages were exposed to a pulsed magnetic field 0.6 or 6 mT in intensity, 12 or 460 Hz in frequency. It was shown that the weight of the thymus in 8-week-old mice was not modified by the exposure, while the weight of the thymus in 15-week-old mice was increased. The maximum increase, about 16% relative to the controls, was obtained 24 hours after a 30 minutes' exposure. Hydrocortisone or cyclophosphamide prevented the effect. The increase in weight has been considered to be due to an increase of the number of the cells in the thymus.

254

Effect of a pulsing electromagnetic field on metabolically derived osteoporosis in rats: a pilot study

The literature suggests that a pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) is effective against bone loss in disuse osteoporosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PEMF on metabolically derived osteoporosis in rats. Sixteen 5 month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (G-1,2,3). G-1 was given a normal diet and no exposure to PEMF; G-2,3 were oophrectomized and fed a low calcium diet for 8 months; and G-3 was also exposed for 24 hr/day to PEMF generated by applying a 15 Hz, 5.6 A peak to peak square wave to Helmholtz coils (64 cm I.D., 200 turns/coil). The rats were sacrificed at 4, 6, and 8 months. Skeletal changes were analyzed by measurements of acid extracted bone calcium and bone mineral content (BMC) using single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Although all animals started at approximately the same weight (mean of 290.0 g), G-2 showed a more progressive increase. While the mean weight after 8 months in G-1 was 350.0 g, and 352.5 g for G-3, that in G-2 was 400.0 g. The calcium content of the femur in G-2 and G-3 at 8 months was lower than that of G-1, but there were no significant differences among the three groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

255

Effect of a wound healing electromagnetic field on inflammatory cytokine gene expression in rats

In earlier studies, we have shown that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) induce programmed cell death in cultured T cells and that rats exposed in vivo to PEMFs have decreased T-cell proliferative capacity. These data led us to hypothesize that PEMFs might be used to control proliferation of inflammatory lymphocytes and therefore beneficially affect inflammatory diseases. Tendinitis is characterized by painful inflammation of the tendon. Inflammation is characterized by massive infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages into the damaged tissue. These inflammatory cells produce a variety of cytokines, which are the cellular regulators of inflammation. The current study tests whether in vivo PEMF effects are mediated via systemic cytokine production in rat tendinitis. Inflammation was chemically induced in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats Achilles' tendons and a wound healing PEMF (Electrobiology, Inc.) was applied for 4 hours immediately following injury. Spleens from control and experimental animals were harvested 24 hours later and total RNA was extracted from the tissues. Gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription of mRNA, and polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR) using primers specific for the cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta, as well as for the control beta-actin. RT-PCR products were separated on 1.5% agarose gels and band intensities were normalized to beta-actin gene expression of the same sample. TGF-beta was the only cytokine produced at high levels in rats with tendinitis in comparison to the other cytokines. PEMFs did not show an effect on any cytokine expression in the spleens, 24 hours after induction of tendinitis. Further studies need to test if cumulative exposures of PEMFs are able to regulate inflammatory cytokine expression either at the site of inflammation or at the local lymph nodes.

256

Effect of alternating current stimulation of the spinal cord on recovery from acute spinal cord injury in rats

The therapeutic value of electrical stimulation of the spinal cord was studied in rats injured by acute compression of the spinal cord. Twenty adult Wistar rats underwent cord compression at T6-7 by the extradural clip compression technique at a force of 125 g for 1 minute. After injury and group randomization, stimulating electrodes were placed extradurally, proximal and distal to the injury site, and attached to a small, implantable receiver-stimulator. The receiver was secured to the paraspinal muscles and implanted subcutaneously, overlying the thoracic spine. The animals were maintained in specially designed cages with encircling antennae attached to radio frequency transmitters. The 10 treatment animals were subjected to a 460-kHz electromagnetic field, pulsed at a frequency of 10 Hz. The receivers converted the pulsed radio frequency into square-wave pulses at the cord electrodes (width 1 ms, frequency 10 Hz). The 10 control animals were exposed to a similar field but with a frequency below the range of the tuned receiver, and therefore they did not receive the square-wave pulse. Clinical recovery was assessed by the inclined plane technique which measures the maximum angle of inclination attained without falling. After 15 weeks of continuous spinal cord stimulation, the inclined plane performance was not significantly different between the two groups (treatment group mean, 44.4 +/- 5.4; control group mean, 41.7 +/- 7.9). This is the first experimental study of the effect of long-term continuous electrical stimulation on spinal cord recovery in mammals. The methods required and the technical aspects involved in achieving continuous stimulation, and the guidelines for future study of this modality are discussed.

257

Effect of astigmatism on states of polarization of aberrant stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere

The effect of astigmatism on states of polarization of aberrant stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Using the Gaussian-Schell model source with astigmatism, the analytical formula for the degree of polarization, the orientation angle, and the degree of polarization ellipse are derived. Analytical results show that different strengths of astigmatism have different effects on states of polarization on propagation. It is also shown that when the astigmatic coefficient of sources is large enough, states of polarization are hardly affected by atmospheric turbulence and the free-space diffraction phenomenon. The sufficient conditions for propagating with invariant polarization are derived and discussed.

258

Effect of combined treatment with paroxetine and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the mitogen-induced proliferative response of rat lymphocytes

Depression is associated with abnormal functions of the immune system. In this study, we investigated how two modem antidepressant therapies, chronic treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and administration of an antidepressant belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), paroxetine, affect the proliferative response of thymocytes and splenocytes stimulated in vitro with various mitogens. Paroxetine (10 mg/kg) and TMS (B = 1.2 T, f = 30 Hz, t = 330 s) were applied once daily for 12 consecutive days, while, if given jointly paroxetine was injected 30 min before TMS. The mitogens used were: concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). While either treatment applied alone had no effect on proliferative response, the joint application of paroxetine and TMS significantly depressed it. The literature data suggest that pulsed magnetic field may directly inhibit mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, which is also inhibited by the presence of high level of serotonin. The present results suggest that both effects are additive, and because of that application of both treatments, whose effects alone are insufficient to prompt the reaction, possibly because adaptive changes during chronic treatment, results in a significant inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation.

259

Effect of digital cellular phones on tachyarrhythmia analysis of automated external defibrillators

OBJECTIVES: Emergency services personnel, family members, laypersons or patients often carry and use mobile phones on sites of emergencies. As there are reported effects on implanted pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators, the influence of digital cellular phones on automated external defibrillators was studied. METHODS: Twelve automated external defibrillator models were bench tested for their correct decision to or not to advise a shock, while being exposed to electromagnetic interference from a handheld cellular phone with 2 W or a portable cellular phone with 8 W transmitting power. The phones were programmed by a special subscriber identity module card to maximum output power with a carrier frequency of 906.2 MHz. The tests were conducted with a burst frequency of 217 Hz in speech mode and 2-8 Hz in discontinuous transmitting exchange mode. The sensitivity and specificity of electrocardiogram analysis systems were tested, with shockable and non-shockable rhythms provided by an electrocardiogram simulator and on two human subjects with normal sinus rhythm. RESULTS: A total of 8640 tests were recorded, each automated external defibrillator was tested a total of 720 times. The automated external defibrillators demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%, representing a positive likelihood ratio of 8641 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.000. In this setting all automated external defibrillators analysed correctly even under worst-case testing conditions, and performed excellently without any single failure. In some devices, voice prompts were distorted beyond comprehension, as the coil of the automated external defibrillator speaker received the pulsed signals. CONCLUSION: Shock advisory systems of automated external defibrillators are not susceptible to electromagnetic interference of 900 MHz cellular phones. Voice prompts, however, could be distorted by the operation of nearby digital mobile phones. During automated external defibrillator training this issue needs to be addressed.

260

Effect of electric field switching on the electrophoretic mobility of single-stranded DNA molecules in polyacrylamide gels

We have examined the effects of pulsed electric fields on the separation of single-stranded DNA molecules in polyacrylamide sequencing gels. Using different electric field pulsing regimens, the mobilities of single-stranded DNA molecules can be retarded or increased as compared to conventional electrophoresis. These results indicated that pulsed field techniques can be applied to gel electrophoresis of small single-stranded DNA molecules.

261

Effect of electromagnetic pulse exposure on brain micro vascular permeability in rats

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on cerebral micro vascular permeability in rats. METHODS: The whole-body of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed or sham exposed to 200 pulses or 400 pulses (1 Hz) of EMP at 200 kV/m. At 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h after EMP exposure, the permeability of cerebral micro vascular was detected by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using lanthanum nitrate and endogenous albumin as vascular tracers, respectively. RESULTS: The lanthanum nitrate tracer was limited to the micro vascular lumen with no lanthanum nitrate or albumin tracer extravasation in control rat brain. After EMP exposure, the lanthanum nitrate ions reached the tight junction, basal lamina and pericapillary tissue. Similarly, the albumin immunopositive staining was identified in pericapillary tissue. The changes in brain micro vascular permeability were transient, the leakage of micro vascular vessels appeared at 1 h, and reached its peak at 3 h, and nearly recovered at 12 h, after EMP exposure. In addition, the leakage of micro vascular was more obvious after exposure of EMP at 400 pulses than after exposure of EMP at 200 pulses. CONCLUSION: Exposure to 200 and 400 pulses (1 Hz) of EMP at 200 kV/m can increase cerebral micro vascular permeability in rats, which is recoverable.

262

Effect of ELF pulsed magnetic fields on survival of leukaemia-prone AKR mice

In a previous experiment an increase in the survival time of leukaemia-prone AKR mice was observed by exposure to a 600 mT or 800 mT static magnetic field when the mice were at least 200 days old. In this experiment 200-day-old-mice were exposed to a 6 mT pulsed magnetic field (PMF) for 30 minutes a day, twice a week until death. The frequency of the field was 12 Hz or 460 Hz. The exposed mice died from leukaemia but had an increased survival time; the average increase was 14.25% compared to the controls. Both the frequencies gave similar results.

263

Effect of environmental factors and cell physiological state on Pulsed Electric Fields resistance and repair capacity of various strains of Escherichia coli

The aim was to determine the resistance variation of four strains of Escherichia coli to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF), the role of the sigma factor RpoS in PEF resistance, as well as the influence of several environmental factors and the cell physiological state on the PEF resistance and repair capacity. The rpoS null mutant, E. coli BJ4L1, exhibited decreased PEF resistance as compared with its wild-type parent, BJ4. W3110 and O157:H7 were the most PEF-resistant strains: whereas 2 and more than 3 Log10 cycles of BJ4 and BJ4L1 cells, respectively, were inactivated after 50 pulses at 35 kV/cm, only 0.5 Log10 cycle of inactivation of W3110 and O157:H7 was attained. A different pattern was observed and the resistance variation among strains was largely reduced, when selective recovery media were used. At exponential growth phase, the resistance of the four strains was lower, and more than 4 Log10 cycles of inactivation of all strains tested were attained at 30 kV/cm. Previous heat and cold shock treatments scarcely influenced cell PEF resistance. PEF survival increased with the reduction in water activity of the treatment medium to 0.94: the occurrence of sublethally injured cells was negligible, and less than 1 Log10 cycle of inactivation was attained at 35 kV/cm. PEF-treated cells were sensitive to a subsequent storage at pH 4.0 or in the presence of sorbic acid, attaining a final inactivation of 4-5 Log10 cycles after 24 hour-incubation. In conclusion, the work confirms the role of rpoS in PEF resistance. E. coli strains exhibit large differences in PEF resistance. These differences were less important when cells were recovered under selective conditions. Both resistance variation among strains and occurrence of sublethal damage were noticeably influenced by the environmental factors tested.

264

Effect of external pulsing electromagnetic fields on the healing of soft tissue

Since fibroblast behavior in bone healing can be altered electrically, it is plausible to hypothesize that fibroblast proliferation and function in soft tissue healing also would respond to an electromagnetically induced pulse. Reports of clinical impressions of accelerated closure of chronic skin wounds overlying areas being treated for nonunion have produced support for this hypothesis, but experimental data have been lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) with clinically employed wave-form parameters on the rate of closure of excisional wounds in normal animals and those with steroid retarded wound healing. Four groups, each containing 12 PEMF-treated rats and 12 control rats, were given different field exposures and two groups were treated with methylprednisolone. The wound areas were measured and tissue was harvested for histological examination at intervals for 28 days after wounding. There was no difference in the gross or microscopical appearance of wounds in each active group and its respective control group. Differences in the number of counted fibroblasts were not significant (p less than 0.5), and wound contraction and epithelialization proceeded at the same rate (t-test for equality of means, power = 90%). Electrical PEMF stimulation with the driving pulse used clinically for nonunion bony repair did not affect soft tissue healing in this model. No experimental support is provided for the reports of accelerated skin healing within therapeutic fields. It is possible that different wave-form characteristics are needed to provoke a response in soft tissue.

265

Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the calpain activation

Calpain is a calcium-dependent protease. it is totally dependent on the availability of calcium ions for expression of its catalytic activity. By analyzing calpain, this investigation aims to define the effect of low intensity ELF magnetic fields on both the molecular system and on intact cells. this study concludes that exposure to low intensity, low frequency magnetic fields alters the intracellular calcium ion availability, thereby modifying the related cell response. The magnetic field intensity studied was 0.3 milli-Tesla.

266

Effect of extremely-low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields on the mitogenic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

The effect of extremely-low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) on the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mitogenic stimulation is reported. We investigated 25 healthy control subjects. Mitogen-stimulated mononuclear cells were exposed to PMF for 72 h and an inhibition of 3H-thymidine uptake was observed in all but one subject. The degree of inhibition of 3H-thymidine uptake was as much as 60%. There was no significant difference between the blastogenic responses of mononuclear cells exposed to PMF for 12 h and control cultures. This study establishes an inhibitory effect of PMF on an in vitro measure of immune function.

267

Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk

The effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments at room or moderate temperature on water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were evaluated and compared with conventional thermal treatments. Vitamin retention was determined in two different substrates, milk and simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF). Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 400 micros at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV/cm and to heat treatments of up to 60 min at temperatures from 50 to 90 degrees C. No changes in vitamin content were observed after HIPEF or thermal treatments except for ascorbic acid. Milk retained more ascorbic acid after a 400 microstreatment at 22.6 kV/cm (93.4%) than after low (63 degrees C-30 min; 49.7% retained) or high (75 degrees C-15s; 86.7% retained) heat pasteurisation treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid fitted a first-order kinetic model for both HIPEF and thermal processes. First-order constant values varied from 1.8 x 10.4 to 1.27 x 10(-3) micros(-1) for the HIPEF treatments (18.3-27.1 kV/cm) and, for thermal processing ranged from 5 x 10(-3) to 8 x 10(-2) min(-1) (50-90 degrees C). No significant differences were found between the results obtained after applying HIPEF treatments at room or moderate temperature. However, results depended on the treatment media. A beneficial effect of natural skim milk components, mainly proteins, was observed on the preservation of ascorbic acid, since skim milk retained more ascorbic acid than SMUF after HIPEF treatments.

268

Effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on trophoblastic connexins

Connexins (Cx) are membrane proteins able to influence trophoblast functions. Here we investigated the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) on Cx expression and localization in extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo. We also analysed cell ultrastructural changes induced by HF-EMF exposure. Samples were exposed to pulse-modulated 1817 MHz sinusoidal waves (GSM-217 Hz; 1h: SAR of 2 W/kg). Cx mRNA expression was assessed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR, protein expression by Western blotting, protein localization by indirect immunofluorescence, cell ultrastructure using electron microscopy. HF-EMF exposure significantly and selectively increased Cx40 and Cx43, without altering protein expression. Nevertheless, Cx40 and Cx43 lost their punctuate fluorescence within the cell membrane, becoming diffuse after HF-EMF exposure. Electron microscopy evidenced a sharp decrease in intercellular gap junction-like structures. This study is the first to indicate that exposure of extravillous trophoblast to GSM-217 Hz signals can modify Cx gene expression, Cx protein localization and cellular ultrastructure.

269

Effect of internal gradients in the nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of the surface-to-volume ratio

We consider a system of spins diffusing in a static inhomogeneous (nonuniform-gradient) magnetic field B in a restricted geometry and in the presence of surface relaxation. We show that the short-time diffusional decay of nuclear magnetization is controlled by the field scattering kernel F(t) identical with [B(t)-B(0)](2), which is a measure of the average field inhomogeneity sampled by the spins in time t and does not depend on the particular sequence of radio-frequency pulses used. Magnetization in arbitrary sequences can be straightforwardly computed by evaluating elementary integrals of F(t). Diffusion takes place while the field is on, so that the spins precess as they diffuse, in contrast to the simpler problem of purely classical diffusion considered in [P. P. Mitra, P. N. Sen, and L. M. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 8565 (1993)] which is applicable only to the ideal pulsed-field gradient experiment. We compute the short-time asymptotic form of F(t) and find that it depends on the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space as well as on the average of the gradients over the bounding surface. In a system with nonuniform gradients that vary faster near the surface than in the bulk, as for internal susceptibility fields, this gradient surface average may be much larger than the gradients in the bulk, significantly enhancing the apparent S/V. We discuss the application of our results to the widely used Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence as well as proposing a modification of it, which we term "padded" CPMG, that may be preferable in systems with significant surface relaxation. We indicate how each sequence can be used to probe the internal fields.

270

Effect of localized pulsed electromagnetic fields on tail-suspension osteopenia in growing mice

Pulsed magnetic fields (PEMFs) have been used effectively to treat bone fractures and sciatic-nerve-section-induced osteopenias. Properly applied PEMFs are presumed to stimulate osteogenesis. Mouse-tail suspension has been implemented as a means of inducing an osteopenic response in the long bones of the hind limbs. To evaluate localized PEMF effects, the mouse-suspension model was modified to accommodate the use of miniature wire coils affixed directly to the rear legs. Laterally and axially orientated PEMF effects were compared. Three test groups of mice included (C) control mice, (S) tail-suspended mice with treatment apparatus attached, and (SF) tail-suspended mice with apparatus attached and PEMFs delivered. The SF group was divided into mice receiving axial or lateral PEMFs. Significant bone changes occurred in suspended as compared with control mice after a 2-week test period. The PEMF mice showed significantly fewer osteopenic effects than did untreated, suspended mice. These findings are based on biomechanical measures of stiffness, strength, ductility, and energy as well as whole-bone mass and porosity. The effects of PEMFs on these properties differ for axial and lateral exposures. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms underlying PEMF effects.

271

Effect of low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields on skin ulcers of the venous origin in humans: a double-blind study.

Summary: the effect of an electromagnetic field on the healing of skin ulcers of venous origin in humans has been investigated in a double-blind study. 44 patients have been admitted to the study; one half were exposed to active stimulators (experimental group) and the remaining two dummy stimulators (control group). The stimulation was scheduled to last a maximum of 90 days. The success rate was significantly higher in the experimental group both at day 90 (p< 0.02) and in the follow-up period (p< 0.005). The data suggest that the effect of the electromagnetic field lasts even when the stimulation is over. No ulcers worsened in the experimental group, while four worsened in the control group. Twenty-five percent of the patients in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced recurrence of the ulcer. It is concluded that stimulation with an electromagnetic field is a useful adjunctive therapy in the management of these patients. Key Words: Ulcer, skin, venous, electromagnetic stimulation, double-blind.

272

Effect of low-level pulsed electromagnetic fields on human chromosomes in vitro: analysis of chromosomal aberrations

The effects of extremely-low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields on human chromosomes with respect to the capacity of inducing chromosome breakage were studied. After human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to pulsed electromagnetic fields at different intensities, a significant effect was observed for one of the intensities tested (40 Gauss), relative to the control group with respect to the yield of chromosome breakages.

273

Effect of pulse-burst electromagnetic field stimulation on osteoblast cell activities

Electric stimulation has been used successfully to treat a wide range of bone disorders. However, the mechanism by which the electric fields can influence the bone cells behavior remains poorly understood. The purpose of this research was to assess the possible mechanism of the stimulatory effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on bone cells. A PEMF with a frequency of 15 Hz (1 G [0.1 mT]; electric field strength 2 mV/cm) were applied to neonatal mouse calvarial bone cell cultures for 14 days. The temporal effects of PEMF on the osteoblasts were evaluated by the status of proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and gene expression on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 14th days of culture. Our results demonstrated that PEMF stimulation significantly increased the osteoblasts' proliferation by 34.0, 11.5, and 13.3% over the control group after 3, 5, and 7 days' culture. Although the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and the mineralization nodules formation did not change, the ALP activity of the bone cells decreased significantly after PEMF stimulation. Under the PEMF stimulation, there was no effect on the extracellular matrix synthesis, while the osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression was up regulated and the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression were down regulated, compared to the control. In conclusion, the treatment by PEMF of osteoblasts may accelerate cellular proliferation, but did not affect the cellular differentiation. The effect of PEMF stimulation on the bone tissue formation was most likely associated with the increase in the number of cells, but not with the enhancement of the osteoblasts' differentiation.

274

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on healing of experimental nonunion in rat tibiae

To see the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) on nonunited fracture healing, nonunion was induced in rat tibiae and PEMF was applied on it. Out of five different techniques utilised for inducing nonunion soft tissue interposition was found to be the most suitable and effective method of experimental induction of nonunion. Twenty eight experimental and 15 control rats were finally evaluated for the effect of PEMF applied for up to 8 weeks. After sacrifice of 8 experimental and 4 controls, 6 experimental and 3 controls, again 6 experimental and 3 controls and finally 8 experimental and 5 controls at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks respectively of PEMF application no significant difference as to the quality of healing was observed between the experimental and control animals. It was thus concluded that PEMF appeared to have no beneficial effect on the healing of nonunited fractures in experimental set-up.

275

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on knee cartilage, subchondral and epyphiseal trabecular bone of aged Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs

It has been demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has a chondroprotective effect on osteoarthritis (OA) progression in the knee joints of the 12-month-old guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to discover whether the therapeutic efficacy of PEMFs was maintained in older animals also in more severe OA lesions. PEMFs were administered daily (6h/day for 6months) to 15-month-old guinea pigs. The knee joints (medial and lateral tibial plateaus, medial and lateral femoral condyles) were evaluated by means of a histological/histochemical Mankin modified by Carlsson grading score and histomorphometric measurements of cartilage thickness (CT), fibrillation index (FI), subchondral bone thickness (SBT) and epiphyseal bone microarchitecture (bone volume: BV/TV; trabecular thickness: Tb.Th; trabecular number: Tb.N; trabecular separation: Tb.SP). Periarticular knee bone was also evaluated with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PEMF stimulation significantly changed the progression of OA lesions in all examined knee areas. In the most affected area of the knee joint (medial tibial plateau), significant lower histochemical score (p<0.0005), FI (p<0.005), SBT (p<0.05), BV/TV (p<0.0005), Tb.Th (p<0.05) and Tb.N (p<0.05) were observed while CT (p<0.05) and Tb.Sp (p<0.0005) were significantly higher than in SHAM-treated animals. DXA confirmed the significantly higher bone density in SHAM-treated animals. Even in the presence of severe OA lesions PEMFs maintained a significant efficacy in reducing lesion progression.

276

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on late-phase osteotomy gap healing in a canine tibial model

The effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on late bone healing phases using an osteotomy gap model in the canine mid-tibia were investigated. A transverse mid-diaphyseal tibial osteotomy with a 2-mm gap was performed unilaterally in 12 adult mixed-breed dogs and stabilized with external fixation. Animals in the variable group (n = 6) were treated with PEMF for 1 h daily starting 4 weeks after surgery for a total of 8 weeks, whereas no stimulation signal was generated in the control group (n = 6). Functional load-bearing and radiographic assessments were conducted time-sequentially until euthanasia 12 weeks after surgery. Torsional tests and an analysis of undecalcified histology were performed on the retrieved mid-tibial diaphysis containing the osteotomy site. In the PEMF group, load-bearing of the operated limb recovered earlier when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Load-bearing in the PEMF group at 8 weeks was greater than in the control group (p < 0.02). The periosteal callus area increased following surgery at 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and thereafter (p < 0.01) in the PEMF group, while a significant increase was observed at 8 and 10 weeks after surgery (p < 0.05) in the control group. Both the normalized maximum torque and torsional stiffness of the PEMF group were significantly greater than those of the control group (p < 0.04 and p < 0.007, respectively). Histomorphometric analyses revealed greater new-bone formation (p < 0.05) in the osteotomy gap tissue and increased mineral apposition rate (p < 0.04) and decreased porosity in the cortex adjacent to the osteotomy line (p < 0.02) in the PEMF group. PEMF stimulation of 1 h per day for 8 weeks provided faster recovery of load-bearing, a significant increase in new bone formation, and a higher mechanical strength of the healing mid-tibial osteotomy. This study revealed enhancing effects of PEMF on callus formation and maturation in the late-phase of bone healing.

277

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone formation and bone loss during limb lengthening

We examined the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on bone formation and disuse osteoporosis sustained during limb lengthening in a double-blind study. Seven males (mean age 13 years, range 11-19 years) and six females (mean age 12 years, range 9-19 years) were randomly allocated to receive either an active or an inactive PEMF coil. Limb lengthening was performed by the Villarubbias technique using either a unilateral or circular frame system. Sequential bone density measurements were made using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared to traditional radiographs. Ten segments (eight tibial and two femoral) in seven patients were lengthened under the influence of active coils and eight segments (six tibial and two femoral) in six patients using inactive coils. There was no difference in the rate nor the amount of new bone formed at the site of distraction between the two groups. Bone loss in the segments of bone distal to the lengthening sites was observed in both groups but was significantly more marked using inactive coils (BMD reduced by 23% +/- SEM 3% and 33% +/- 4% control values after one and two months, respectively; p < 0.0001) than using active coils (BMD reduced by 10% +/- 2% at 2 months). These differences were greater at 12 months after surgery (reduced by 54% +/- 5% and 13% +/- 4%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields has no effect on the regenerate bone, but does prevent bone loss adjacent to the distraction gap.

278

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on calcium tissue changes in focal ischaemia

The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) (parameters: 27.1 MHz, 585 W peak power, and 65 microseconds pulses, 400 times per second) on rats undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was investigated. Four groups of eight rats each underwent microsurgical MCAo. Two groups were treated with a PEMF generator for 2 h following the onset of ischemia and were sacrificed at 4 and 24 h following the MCAo respectively. The other two groups were also sacrificed at the same time intervals. Regional brain sodium, potassium, and calcium tissue contents were determined by atomic spectrophotometry. As distinct from results found in spinal cord contusion, no significant difference between the PEMF-treated groups and the non-treatment groups was found. PEMF treatment did not alter the 300% rise in calcium tissue dry weight content observed at 24 h following MCAo in the infarcted tissue. Regional brain water content was determined by the dry weight method. A regionally inconsistent reduction in brain water content was noted in the PEMF-treated rats.

279

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on hind foot archer Jesus: a prospective study

The rate and speed of radiographic union of hindfoot fusion surgeries (in humans) was enhanced by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy.

280

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on maturation of regenerate bone in a rabbit limb lengthening model

To study the effect of applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) during the consolidation phase of limb lengthening, a mid-tibial osteotomy was performed in 18 adult New Zealand White rabbits and an external fixator was applied anteromedially. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. After a 7-day latency period, the tibiae were distracted 0.5 mm every 12 h for 10 days. The treatment group received a 20-day course of PEMF for 60 min daily, coinciding with initiation of the consolidation phase. The control group received sham PEMF. Radiographs were performed weekly after distraction. Animals were euthanized 3 weeks after the end of distraction. Radiographic analysis revealed no significant difference in regenerate callus area between treatment and control tibiae immediately after distraction, at 1 week, 2 weeks, or 3 weeks after distraction ( p = 0.71, 0.22, 0.44, and 0.50, respectively). There was also no significant difference in percent callus mineralization ( p = 0.96, 0.69, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to structural stiffness ( p = 0.80) or maximal torque to failure ( p = 0.62). However, there was a significant positive difference in mineral apposition rate between groups during the interval 1-2 weeks post-distraction ( p < 0.05). This difference was no longer evident by the interval 2-3 weeks post-distraction. While PEMF applied during the consolidation phase of limb lengthening did not appear to have a positive effect on bone regenerate, it increased osteoblastic activity in the cortical bone adjacent to the distraction site. Since the same PEMF signal was reported to be beneficial in the rabbit distraction osteogenesis when applied during distraction phase and consolidation phase, application of PEMF in the early phase may be more effective. Further work is necessary to determine optimal timing of the PEMF stimulation during distraction osteogenesis.

281

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of a simple surgically noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field could increase both the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the electromagnetic field's effects on bony physiology and metabolism and to search for possible systemic side effects. Laterally directed orthodontic force was applied to the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 40 young male, Hartley guinea pigs (20 experimental, 20 control) by means of a standardized intraoral coil spring inserted under constricting pressure into holes drilled in the guinea pigs' two maxillary central incisors. During the experimental period, the guinea pigs were placed in specially constructed, plastic animal holders with their heads positioned in an area of uniform electromagnetic field. Control animals were placed in similar plastic holders that did not carry the electrical apparatus. The application of a pulsed electromagnetic field to the experimental animals significantly increased both the rate and final amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed over the 10-day experimental period. The experimental animals also demonstrated histologic evidence of significantly greater amounts of bone and matrix deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors. This increase in cellular activity was also reflected by the presence of significantly greater numbers of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals. After a 10-day exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field, minor changes in serologic parameters relating to protein metabolism and muscle activity were noted. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and bone deposition through the application of a noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field.

282

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on proteoglycan biosynthesis of articular cartilage is age dependent

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) on articular cartilage matrix biosynthesis with regard to age and cartilage damage using a matrix depleted cartilage explant model. METHODS: Cartilage explants were obtained from metacarpophalangeal joints of calves and adult cows. After depletion of the extracellular matrix by trypsin digestion, samples were maintained in serum-free basal medium with and without the addition of interleukin 1beta (IL1beta). Half the samples were subjected to an EMF for 24 minutes daily; the other half were left untreated. Undigested and untreated explants served as negative controls. After 7 days, biosynthesis of matrix macromolecules was assessed by [35S]sulphate incorporation and values were normalised to hydroxyproline content. RESULTS: The EMF increased matrix macromolecule synthesis in undigested, untreated explants (p<0.009). In matrix depleted samples the EMF had no stimulatory effect on proteoglycan biosynthesis. IL1beta significantly decreased the de novo synthesis of matrix macromolecules (p<0.00004) in young and adult samples, but an EMF partly counteracted this inhibitory effect in cartilage samples from young, but not old animals. CONCLUSION: EMF promoted matrix macromolecule biosynthesis in intact tissue explants but had no stimulatory effect on damaged articular cartilage. The supressive effects of IL1beta were partially counteracted by EMF exposure, exclusively in cartilage derived from young animals. An EMF has age dependent chondroprotective but not structure modifying properties when cartilage integrity is compromised.

283

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on facial nerve regeneration

OBJECTIVE: To determine if exposure to electromagnetic fields influences regeneration of the transected facial nerve in the rat. DESIGN AND METHODS: The left facial nerve was transected in the tympanic section of the fallopian canal in 24 rats randomly assigned to 2 groups. The cut ends of the facial nerve were reapproximated without sutures within the fallopian canal to maximize the potential for regeneration. Rats in the experimental group (n= 12) were then exposed to pulsed electromagnetic stimulation (0.4 millitesla at 120 Hz) for 4 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks. Rats in the control group (n=12) were handled in an identical manner without pulsed electromagnetic stimulation. Four other rats were given sham operations in which all surgical procedures were carried out except for the actual nerve transection. Two of these rats were placed in each group. Nerve regeneration was evaluated using electroneurography (compound action potentials), force of whisker and eyelid movements, and voluntary facial movements before and at 2-week intervals after transection. Histological evaluation was performed at 10 weeks after transection. Each dependent variable was analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance with 1 between variable (groups) and 1 within repeated measures variable (days after transection). RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated that N1 (the negative deflection of depolarization phase of the muscle and/or nerve fibers) area, N1 amplitude, and N1 duration, as well as absolute amplitude of the compound action potentials, were all significantly greater 2 weeks after transection in the experimental than in the control group of rats. The force of eye and whisker movements after electrical stimulation was statistically greater in the experimental group of rats 4 weeks after transection. Voluntary eye movements in the experimental group were significantly better at 5 and 10 weeks, while whisker movements were better at 3 and 10 weeks. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for any histological variable. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that pulsed electromagnetic stimulation enhances early regeneration of the transected facial nerve in rats.

284

Effect of pulsed magnetic field on regenerating rat sciatic nerve: an in-vitro electrophysiologic study

Some experimental studies report that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation may accelerate regeneration in peripheral nerves. In the present study, effects of PEMF on the regeneration of the crushed rat sciatic nerves were investigated with histological and in-vitro electrophysiological methods (sucrose-gap). After crush injury of the sciatic nerves, rats were divided into 5, 15, 25, 38 day-groups and exposed to PEMF (1.5 h/day, intensity; 1.5 mT, consecutive frequency; 10-40-100 Hz). In the 15th day post crush, compound action potential (CAP) amplitude was measured as 5.5+/-1 mV (crush group) and 5.4+/-1.2 mV (crush+PEMF group). In addition, half width of CAP extended ~3 fold in both groups and frequency-dependent amplitude inhibition (FDI) decreased approximately 20% at 100 Hz. In the 38th day, amplitude of CAP, half width of CAP and FDI were measured nearly intact nerve values in both groups. In histological examinations, Wallerian degeneration was observed similar progress between both groups. The results were compared between crush and crush + PEMF groups, it was found that the effect of PEMF was not significant. The authors conclude that PEMF were ineffective on rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

285

Effect of pulsed magnetic field therapy on pain reported by human volunteers in a laboratory model of acute pain

BACKGROUND: Pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) is a non-invasive, simple technique used extensively for the treatment of muscle pain. However, evidence to support its use from well-designed, clinical, or experimental studies is sparse. METHODS: We have utilized an acute pain model to perform a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover-study on 10 male (18-40 yr) volunteers. Pain was elicited by infusion of hypertonic saline 5% into the brachioradialis muscle of the non-dominant arm on two occasions, at least 1 week apart. Subjects received active or sham PMFT for 30 min in a randomized order delivered by two identical, commercially available machines (PulsePack 6000, Quantum Techniks). The active machine delivered a M-wave magnetic pulse (1.25 Hz, 3 ms width, 600 Gauss); the sham device was deactivated and delivered no magnetic energy. Pain was assessed at 15-s intervals, and area under the visual analogue score (VAS) pain curve (AUCp) was calculated using the trapezoid method. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in mean VAS pain scores between the two machines at any time. In addition, there were no significant differences with respect to mean (sem) maximum pain score [sham 60 (8), active 63 (9) mm; P = 0.66, 95% CI -18 to 12 mm] or AUCp [sham 463 (50), active 499 (90); P = 0.64, 95% CI -201 to 129]. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, using the electromagnetic characteristics of the machine in this study, the PMFT had no effect on pain in our experimental model. More work is required to provide an evidence base in support of the use of this technique for pain.

286

Effect of pulsed magnetic fields on cholesterol and tryglyceride levels in rats study of field intensity and length of exposure

In a previous work a decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels was observed in rats 24 hours after their exposure to a 12 Hz 6 mT pulsed magnetic field (PMF). This time, a study of intensity effects of a 12 Hz PMF for a sixty-minute exposure and of length of exposure for a 12 Hz 6 mT PMF took place. Non-linear effect-dose relationships were observed for the PMF intensity as well as for the length of exposure used. The highest decreases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were obtained after to a sixty-minute exposure with 1.5 mT and 12 mT.

287

Effect of pulsed magnetic fields on healthy mice, a study through cellular electrophoresis of thymic cells

An exposure of adult mice to a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) increases thymus weight. In this work, thymic lymphocytes were studied by cellular electrophoresis because the proliferation and maturation of these cells is linked to an increase in their electrophoretic mobility (EM). Fifteen-week-old female Swiss mice were exposed for 30 min to a 6 mT PMF, 12 or 460 Hz in frequency, according to different modalities. The EM of the thymic cells, suspended in saline were measured from 0 to 96 h after the end of the exposure. For some of the mice the whole body, for others the head only or the body without the head was exposed; the animals were awaken or narcotized, prepared or not with 6-hydroxydopamine. The modifications of the EM are in favour of an action of the PMF on the thymus through the central nervous system.

288

Effect of pulsed magnetic fields on leukemia-prone AKR mice. No-effect on mortality through five generations

Leukemia-prone AKR mice were exposed twice a week to a 6 mT, 12 Hz or 460 Hz pulsed magnetic field for 30 min. If we take into account the five consecutive generations of mice, the above exposure actually took place in utero and, or during their life span. There was no difference in the incidence of leukemia or in the actuarial survival curves or in the average spleen or thymus weights.

289

Effect of pulsed magnetic fields on triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma of rats

BACKGROUND: Liver is a crucial organ in metabolism. For instance liver is the main source of circulating lipoproteins. METHODS: In this paper cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels were measured in male rats previously exposed to pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) used in therapy. Rats underwent a one-hour exposure to a 6 mT 12 Hz PMF. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after the end of the exposure to the PMF the rats' livers were heavier, cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels decreased. All these variations were significantly different according to a variance ratio test as was a rebound in triglyceride level 48 hours after the end of the exposure. Normal values were observed 48 and 96 hours after the end of exposure respectively for cholesterol and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: These alterations may be due to a reversible accumulation of either triglycerides or of their precursors in liver following acute exposure to a 12 Hz PMF.

290

Effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on in vitro models of neurodegenerative disease

In this work we tested viability, proliferation, and vulnerability of neural cells, after continuous radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure (global system for mobile telecommunications (GSM) modulated 900 MHz signal at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1 W/kg and maximum duration 144 h) generated by transverse electromagnetic cells. We used two cellular systems, SN56 cholinergic for example, SN56 cholinergic cell line and rat primary cortical neurons, and well-known neurotoxic challenges, such as glutamate, 25-35AA beta-amyloid, and hydrogen peroxide. Exposure to RF did not change viability/proliferation rate of the SN56 cholinergic cells or viability of cortical neurons. Co-exposure to RF exacerbated neurotoxic effect of hydrogen peroxide in SN56, but not in primary cortical neurons, whereas no cooperative effects of RF with glutamate and 25-35AA beta-amyloid were found. These data suggest that only under particular circumstances exposure to GSM modulated, 900 MHz signal act as a co-stressor for oxidative damage of neural cells.

291

Effect of short duration electromagnetic field exposures on rat mass

Daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements of 65 rats (young males and females, old males) a proprietary pulsed wound healing field, pulsed electromagnetic field, (PEMF), or their control fields for 4 h/day for 21 days. Statistical analysis of mass changes over time showed that young rats exposed to PEMF lost more mass and recovered it more slowly compared to controls (2-4% more loss) than did older PEMF exposed rats or any 60 Hz exposed rats. We conclude that daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements are needed to adequately assess the effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass.

292

Effect of smoking and pulsed electromagnetic fields on intradiscal pH in rabbits

The adverse effect of cigarette smoking on human spines has been noted indirectly. There is correlation of increased back pain among individuals who smoke heavily. The hypothesis of this study was that an environment of cigarette smoking is an adverse event and will create a reduced pH in the rabbit intervertebral disc. Electromagnetic fields, however, can defend against this adverse event and reduce the tendency toward acidic pH. Rabbits were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 4, or 6 weeks and their intradiscal pH measured. Cigarette-smoke-exposed discs demonstrated a consistently lower pH than did the discs of the machine control rabbits. The second group of rabbits were exposed to cigarette smoke and pulsed electromagnetic fields. The cigarette-smoke-exposed rabbits that were exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic fields for 4 hr/day demonstrated no change in their intradiscal pH, in contrast to those who were exposed to smoke alone. In conclusion, cigarette smoke exposure in rabbits consistently produces a lower intradiscal pH and pulsed electromagnetic fields can defend against this adverse effect.

293

Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on body image perception in patients with multiple sclerosis

Cerebellar ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and also one of the least responsive to pharmacotherapy. However, cerebellar symptoms often improve dramatically in MS patients by brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This report concerns two MS patients with chronic disabling ataxia who experienced rapid improvement in gait and balance after receiving a series of treatments with EMFs. To assess whether improvement in cerebellar gait is accompanied by changes in body image perception, a parietal lobe function, both patients were administered the Human Figure Drawing Test before and after a series of brief treatments with EMFs. Prior to application of EMFs these patients' free drawings of a person showed a figure with a wide-based stance characteristic of cerebellar ataxia. After receiving a series of EMFs treatments both patients demonstrated a change in body image perception with the drawings of the human figure showing a normal stance. These findings demonstrate that in MS improvement in cerebellar symptoms by pulsed applications of picotesla EMFs is associated with changes in the body image.

294

Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP response in Parkinson's disease

Visual evoked potential (VEP) studies are widely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are also useful in monitoring the effects of various therapeutic modalities in the disease. Prolongation of the VEP latencies has been demonstrated in patients with MS and in other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder characterized by deficient cerebral dopamine (DA) functions. Pharmacological and biochemical studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the amplitude of the VEP response and cerebral DA levels. Since brief, extracerebral applications of picotesla (pT) range flux intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of low frequency have been shown to produce rapid improvement in motor and cognitive symptoms in PD, it is expected that application these EMFs would lead also to an increase in the amplitude of VEP response. This report documents three randomly selected PD patients who, following two successive brief extracerebral applications of pT range EMFs, showed an almost 3-fold increase of the mean pretreatment amplitude of the pattern reversal VEP in response to monocular stimulation. One patient underwent also a placebo EMF treatment which did not result in a significant change in the posttreatment amplitude. The study demonstrates that in Parkinsonian patients extracerebral application of these EMFs rapidly increases in amplitude of the VEP response and, by inference, cerebral DA levels presumably by increasing DA release.

295

Effect of weak, interrupted sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field on neural regeneration in rats: functional evaluation.

PEMFs Have been shown to stimulate growth and regeneration of nervous tissue. In this study, a 0.5 milliTesla, four hour per day exposure produced measurable increases in nerve regeneration for both crushed and transected rat sciatic nerves. In a parallel study by Rusovan and Kanje (1991) significant increases in regeneration rates at 250, 500, and 1000 Hz with no effect at 50 or 2000 Hz. The maximal response was obtained at a frequency of 1000 Hz with the regeneration rate increased by 24%.

296

Effect of weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields on neural regeneration in the rat

The short- and long-term effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the rate and quality of peripheral nerve regeneration were studied. High bilateral transections of rat sciatic nerves were surgically approximated (a 1-mm gap was left) and shielded with a Silastic sleeve. Animals were exposed to PEMFs for two to 14 weeks after operation. Three groups of 20 rats each (control rats and rats undergoing 12- and 24-hour/day PEMF exposure) were killed at two weeks. Histologically, regenerating axons had penetrated the distal stump nearly twice as far in the PEMF-exposed animals as in the control animals. Return of motor function was judged two to 14 weeks after operation by the load cell-measured, plantar-flexion force produced by neural stimulation proximal to the transection site. Motor function returned earlier in experimental rats and to significantly higher load levels than in control rats. Nerves from animals functioning 12-14 weeks after operation had less interaxonal collagen, more fiber-containing axis cylinders, and larger fiber diameters in the PEMF-exposed group than in the control rats. Histologic and functional data indicate that PEMFs improve the rate and quality of peripheral nerve regeneration in the severed rat sciatic nerve by a factor of approximately two.

297

Effect on SCE in human chromosomes in vitro of low-level pulsed magnetic field

We analyzed sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequencies as an indicator of DNA damage induced in human lymphocytes in vitro by a low-level pulsed electromagnetic field. We studied the effect of low-level pulsed electromagnetic fields on human chromosomes with the cytogenetic assay of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. After the human peripheral lymphocyte cultures were exposed in vitro to the electromagnetic field at different intensities, no significant differences were observed when comparing with the control group as to the number of SCE.

298

Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in lateral epicondylitis

We aimed to investigate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in lateral epicondylitis comparing the modality with sham PEMF and local steroid injection. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly and equally distributed into three groups as follows: Group I received PEMF, Group II sham PEMF, and Group III a corticosteroid + anesthetic agent injection. Pain levels during rest, activity, nighttime, resisted wrist dorsiflexion, and forearm supination were investigated with visual analog scale (VAS). Pain threshold on elbow was determined with algometer. All patients were evaluated before treatment at the third week and the third month. VAS values during activity and pain levels during resisted wrist dorsiflexion were significantly lower in Group III than Group I at the third week. Group I patients had lower pain during rest, activity and nighttime than Group III at third month. PEMF seems to reduce lateral epicondylitis pain better than sham PEMF. Corticosteroid and anesthetic agent injections can be used in patients for rapid return to activities.

299

Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields compared with placebo in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. METHODS: Randomized, controlled trials reporting on the blinded comparison of pulsed electromagnetic fields with placebo were included. Validity was tested according to the Jadad Scale. Studies were pooled using fixed-effects and random-effects models after exclusion of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were performed to test the stability of our findings. RESULTS: Nine studies, including 483 patients, were pooled. No significant difference could be shown for pain (weighted mean difference 0.2 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.4 to 0.8) or stiffness (weighted mean difference 0.3; 95% CI: -0.3 to 0.9). There was a significant effect on activities of daily living (weighted mean difference 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-1.4, p = 0.014) and scores (standardized mean difference 0.4; 95% CI: 0.05-0.8, p = 0.029). We saw only statistically insignificant differences between studies with different treatment protocols. CONCLUSION: Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve clinical scores and function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and should be considered as adjuvant therapies in their management. There is still equipoise of evidence for an effect on pain in the current literature.

300

Effects of 100-Hz magnetic fields with various waveforms on the development of chick embryos

Chick embryos were exposed during their 52 first hours of development to 100-Hz magnetic fields. Sinusoidal, square and pulsed waveforms were used at average field strengths from 0.1 A/m to 80 A/m. After exposure, the embryos were examined for abnormalities and classified by the developmental stages. When bipolar oscillations (oscillating at both sides of the zero-level) were used, the percentage of abnormal embryos was significantly increased above 1 A/m. In exposure to unipolar square waves, no significant effect on the percentage of abnormalities could be demonstrated. The developmental stage was possibly affected by unipolar square waves at 0.1 A/m, all other field strengths and waveforms being apparently ineffective.

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