iMRS 2000 - PEMF Publications
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PEMF Publications







[Impacts of steep pulsed electric fields on lymphatic capillaries in VX2 implanted breast cancer in rabbits]

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Electrochemotherapy mediated by electric pulse has become a multidisciplinary biomedical engineering technique in modern medical science. Its main mechanisms are enhancing the diffusion of chemotherapeutic drugs, antibodies, or genes into the inner part of tumor cells mediated by membrane-electropermeabilization caused by electric pulse. Our previous studies confirmed that steep pulsed electric field (SPEF) could irreversibly cause membrane electropermeabilization, and lead to death of tumor cells. This study was to explore the acute killing effects of SPEF on lymphatic capillaries in VX2 implanted breast cancer in rabbits. METHODS: Tumor model of VX2 implanted breast cancer was successfully established in rabbits. Isosulfan blue staining, 5'-AMP-ALPase enzymohistochemical double staining, and electron microscopy was used to observe the morphologic changes of local lymphatic capillaries around cancer tissues exposed to SPEF. RESULTS: After exposed to SPEF, no lymphatic vessels were found with isosulfan blue staining, only blurred structures were observed; enzymohistochemistry showed no positively stained lymphatic vessels, only fragmental structures around cancer tissues were observed; integrity and continuity of lymphatic endothelium were destroyed under transmission electron microscope. CONCLUSION: SPEF has the potential to destroy lymphatic capillaries around VX2 implanted breast cancer, and can decrease the possibility of post-treatment lymphatic metastasis.


[In vitro studies of the effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on normal and cancer cells]

The effect of an electromagnetic field of 100 Hz during 5 msec on HeLa, MMT and LMMB cell lines in vitro was investigated by means of videophotomicrography. An inhibition of cell growth of cancer cells was observed after the simultaneous action of light and electromagnetic field. The combined effect was also proved using plating efficiency tests.


[Infitatherapy of children with bronchial asthma]

Use of nonmedicamental methods of treatment assists to improve the control of children's bronchial asthma clinical course. Pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic field regulates the state of central and vegetative nervous system and improves psychological status of child. Inphytotherapy has bronchial spasmolytic and immune correction effects.


[Influence of low magnetic field on lipid peroxidation]

Free radicals (FR) are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of the oxidizing stress, which is the cause of many neoplasmic, neurodegenerative, inflammatory diseases and aging the organism. The main exogenous sources of free radicals are among others: industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic field. The low frequency magnetic field is more and more applied in the physician therapy. The aim of our study was to prove, if the magnetically field applied in the magntetotherapy, affects generating the reactive forms of oxygen according to its working time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research material made up male, adult, Sprague-Dawley race rats age 3-4 months. To investigation compounds reacting with the tiobarbituric acid, the blood was taken from the rat caudal vein into the test-glass including EDTA before being affected by the magnetic field. After the single exposition and after 14 days of being affected by the magnetic field, the concentration of the compounds reacting with the tiobarbituric acid in the serum was measured. RESULTS: After the single exposition to the changeable magnetic field (frequency 40 Hz, induction 7 mT, working time 30' and 60 min) the process of the peroxidation of lipids slowed down. A increase of the peroxidation of lipids was observed after 14 days and these changes are statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Low magnetic field used in magnetotherapy causes the changes of the generating the reactive forms of oxygen.


[Influence of low-frequency magnetotherapy and HF-puncture on the heart rhythm in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration]

The authors present results concerning use of low-frequency magnetic fields and HF-therapy for correction of vegetative homeostasis in workers with variable length of service, exposed to vibration, having early forms of arterial hypertension. The most positive changes of vegetative status and central hemodynamics are seen in workers with low length of service.


[Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human]

The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency--40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF--10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction--25-80 microT; frequency--200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student's test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature.


[Influence of weak electromagnetic field on different forms of behavior in grain beetle, Tenebrio molitor]

The influence of weak electromagnetic radiation on simple forms of behavior was studied on the model of the motor behavior of the imago grain beetle (Tenebrio molitor). Positive (feeding) and negative (illumination) motivations were created in the same experimental conditions. Beetles in a Petri dish were put to the starting point of a special container. The goal (a peace of potato or a box protected from light) was in the other fixed point of the container. Time of the goal reaching by groups of beetles was recorded in one daily trial in the course of five consecutive days. Under conditions of both motivations, behavioral phases such as orienting reaction and environmental adaptation were observed. Exposure to weak electromagnetic radiation resulted in an increase in the reaction time at the initial stage of the experiment. The effect was of a seasonal character and varied depending on the behavioral form.


[Initial experiences in the treatment of psoriasis with pulsating magnetic fields]

The ability of a pulsed magnetic field to achieve regression in psoriasis was investigated in 110 patients. The best results were obtained in the scalp hair region (100% good results), patches in the classic sites (73,7% good results) in males, and in guttate forms (75% good results) in females. Persons in the 2nd, 5th and 6th decades of life showed the best response to this treatment, while longstanding forms responded better than those of more recent origin. The treatment seemed to be particularly successful when commenced in march-april (80% good results). No side-effects worthy of note were observed. It is felt that the field employed has a systemic effect.


[Innovations in food processing: nonthermal methods]

Consumers' desires for foods that are minimally preserved and processed are encouraging the development of new methods for the inactivation of micro-organisms in foods. Non-thermal processes (such as high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, irradiation, high intensity pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields and light pulses) can be used for the inactivation of food-spoilage micro-organisms without affecting the quality of the food. While the efficacy of many of these methods was demonstrated many years ago, technological advances are only now beginning to make possible their commercial exploitation.


[Is CNS activity modified by pulsed electromagnetic fields?]

In the present pilot study we examined the effects of electromagnetic fields on the biological organism. The study was prompted by discussions on the possible effects on the nervous system and cognitive processes of fields produced by mobile phones. The experiments were performed in an electrophysiological laboratory. Eleven volunteers were exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (GSM standard). The psychophysiological method of assessing the order threshold (Ordnungsschwelle = OS) was used to examine cognitive performance. Under the test conditions, nine of the subjects showed a loss of mental regeneration, as reflected by an increase in the OS, in comparison with the field-free situation. The results of our experiments suggest an influence of pulsed fields on the cognitive regeneration process.


[Laser magnetotherapy after cataract extraction with implantation of intraocular lens]

Effects of low-intensive laser and alternating magnetic field on the course of the postoperative period were studied in patients with exudative reaction after extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of intraocular lens (IOL). The results are analyzed for 148 eyes with early exudative reaction after IOL implantation (136 patients aged 42-75 years). The patients were observed for up to 6 months. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the clinical picture of inflammatory reaction, visual acuity, and results of biochemical analysis of the lacrimal fluid (the ratio of lipid peroxidation products to antioxidants in cell membrane). The course of the postoperative period was more benign and recovery sooner in patients of the main group in comparison with the control.


[Local negative pressure and magnetic field in therapy of patients with erectile dysfunction]

Combined treatment with local negative pressure and pulsating magnetic field conducted in 116 patients with erectile dysfunction aged 20-60 years produced optimal treatment results. Recovery and improvement of the erectile function were achieved in 85.7% patients given local vacuum-magnetotherapy.


[Low-frequency pulsed magnetotherapy combined with electrostimulation of biologically active points in the combined treatment of traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis]

The results of treatment are analyzed in 51 patients (35 with exacerbation of chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis and 16 with chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis). Low-intensity pulsed magnetic therapy of the focus in combination with electric stimulation of segmentary bioactive points, synchronized by the patient's pulse, are proposed to be added to the therapeutic complex. Such a modality improved the regional hemodynamics, promoted liquidation of the postoperative edema on days 1-2 after intervention, and sooner than after traditional therapy repaired the energy of the patient's organism.


[Magnet stimulation therapy: a simple solution for the treatment of stress and urge incontinence?]

AIM: Magnet stimulation therapy has been offered as a new, conservative therapy for stress and urge incontinence in Germany since 2001. Focussed, pulsating magnetic fields are used to stimulate the musculature of the floor of the pelvis. This publication describes our initial experience with this method. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We treated 27 patients with magnetic stimulation. The individual patient sits clothed on a therapy-chair and is treated for 20 min twice a week for 2 weeks. RESULTS: The best results were recorded in female patients with grades I and II stress incontinence who could not actively flex their pelvic-floor musculature during physiotherapy. A marked reduction in the frequency of micturition was obtained in 67% of patients with urge incontinence symptoms and non-responsiveness to anticholinergic therapy. Patients with a non-organically tangible pelvic-pain-syndrome did not benefit from the therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Magnet stimulation therapy can act as a useful addition to conservative therapies for stress and urge incontinence. It is free of complications and does not involve the insertion of an electrode into the patient as is the case for vaginal and anal electrostimulation. However, this method does not appear to be useful for chronic, non-specific pain in the lower pelvis.


[Magnetic and electromagnetic stimulation in the combined treatment of patients with paralysis of the mimetic musculature]

The original method of treatment of patients with postoperative paresis of mimic muscles wis offered. The method included the use of two therapeutic factors: magnetotherapy and electromagnetostimulation of peripheral branches of facial nerve. The principles of combined influence of both components were described in detail. Data on functional control of treatment results confirm the reparation of peripheral branches of facial nerve.


[Magnetic fields in physical therapy. Experience in orthopedics and traumatology rehabilitation]

The present research is based on the premise that magnetic fields stimulate biological tissues, as many international works assert. They believe in the real aid of this therapeutical treatment in orthopedy and traumatology. The authors work in Rehabilitation Department of a traumatological hospital, so they have studied therapeutical results in ELF magnetotherapy on their patients for as long as six months.


[Magnetophoresis of glutaminic acid and magnesium sulfate in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy]

Clinical efficacy of magnetophoresis of glutaminic acid and magnesium sulfate used in the rehabilitative complex for preschool children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy has been studied. The clinical and neurophysiological examination has been conducted in 40 children aged from 1 to 7 years. The higher efficacy of treatment with combination of running pulsed magnetic field and drugs as compared to magnetotherapy using the same procedure has been found.


[Magnetotherapy in clinical and ambulatory practice]

The results of experimental research into the physical, physiological and biological effects on the tissues of electromagnetic fields are analysed. The research was conducted on 354 patients either hospitalised or treated in outpatients departments for orthopaedic conditions. These patients were treated with electromagnetic currents for a period of 10 days and the effects mainly on oedema, pain and inflammation were evaluated. The effects were distinctly positive especially in the case of acute lesions. In addition, no unpleasant or harmful topical or systemic side effects were observed.


[Magnetotherapy in obliterating vascular diseases of the lower extremities]

The investigators have developed a polymagnetic system "Avrora-MK-01" employing running impulse magnetic field to treat diseases of the leg vessels by the action on peripheral capillary bed. At a pregangrene stage a positive effect on peripheral capillaries was achieved in 75-82% of the patients treated.


[Magnetotherapy in the comprehensive treatment of vascular complications of diabetes mellitus]

320 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were exposed to impulsed magnetic field, 100 control DM patients received conservative therapy alone. 270 patients had microangiopathy, macroangiopathy was diagnosed in 50 patients. Good and satisfactory results of magnetotherapy in combination with conservative methods were achieved in 74% of patients versus 28% in control group. Metabolism stabilization resulted in some patients in reduced blood sugar. Use of magnetic field produced faster and longer response than conservative therapy.


[Magnetotherapy of initial manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders in hypertension]

The paper is concerned with the data on 147 subjects who underwent magnetotherapy with the unit "Magniter-AMT-01" applied to the cervical area. The main group included 102 subjects, 45 person served as control. The purpose of the work was to base the application of MT under inpatient and home conditions with the use of the above-indicated unit. In view of this fact, a study was made of cerebral hemo- and thermodynamics with the aid of rheoencephalography and encephaloradiothermography under the action of different modes of the functioning of the unit "Magniter-AMT-01" (pulse and variable magnet induction fields 12-15 mTl and 30-35 mTl). A method of measuring magnetosensitivity of patients depending on the temperature reaction of the brain to a single MT session was elaborated. The greatest clinical effect was attained with the use of pulse magnetic field 15 mTl. Magnetotherapy with the use of the unit "Magniter-AMT-01" provided good results under inpatient and home conditions. The magnetosensitive patients demonstrated the highest effect.


[Measurement of motor strength of the hand using the Martin Vigorometer in evaluating the success of physical therapy in arthritis of the thumb]

Motor strength of the fist was examined in 60 women with rhisarthrosis of the thumb before and after physical therapy with parafin compresses and magnetotherapy, as well as ultrasound through the water with VIGORIMETER "MARTIN". By measuring a better effect has been proved by using parafin compresses and magnetotherapy instead of the therapy with the ultrasound through the water.


[Methods of the physical medicine therapy in prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty]

BACKGROUND/AIM: In the prevention of periarticular heterotopic ossification (HO), a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and irradiation are used. Some theories presume that local hypoxia of the soft tissue causes HO. The aim of this study was to investigate if the early use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) could prevent this ossification since it accelerates the circulation and oxigenation of soft tissue. METHODS: The study included three groups of the patients with primary THA. The group C consisted of 66 patients/79 hips who had only kinesitherapy in postoperative rehabilitation. The group B consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF and interferential current (IC) which, on average, started on the 14th day after the surgery combined with the standard kinesitherapy. The group A consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF from the third postoperative day and IC from, on average, the 14th postoperative day with the standard kinesitherapy. The classification of HO was done on a standard AP roentgenograms of the hips, taken at least one year after the surgery. RESULTS: The overall HO was seen in 50.63% of the group C patients, in 43.51% of the B group and in 16.67% of the group A. Severe HO (III and IV class according to Brooker) was seen in 26.58% of the group C patients and in 6.10% of the group B, but none in the group A. CONCLUSION: According to the obtained results an early treatment with PEMF could prevent severe HO and reduce the overall HO.


[Mobilization of intraocular foreign bodies by magnetic resonance tomography]

A 49-year-old patient suffered from a binocular perforating trauma with metal foreign bodies in 1974. During an MRI examination in 1992 for a lumbar spine herniation a metal foreign body was mobilised from the deeper vitreal and retinal area, now causing optical disturbances freely floating in the anterior vitreous. Refusing an operation, the patient, an electrical engineer, tried himself to remove the foreign body out of the optical axis by exposing his head to the electro-magnetic field of an induction coil (pulsed magnetic induction B at t0 of 0.26 Tesla). The foreign body was split into multiple small parts no longer disturbing the patient. To early detect a siderosis regular ophthalmological controls including ERG are necessary. This example stresses that even small intraocular metal foreign bodies are a contraindication for the usually applied field strength of MRI examinations.


[Morphological criteria of lung cancer regression under the effect of magnetotherapy]

The complex investigation (histological, histochemical, morphological, electrone microscopy) of lung cancerous tumors from 20 patients, subjected preoperatively to the action of magnetic fields enhancing the antitumor resistance by developing general nonspecific adaptation reactions: activation and training, has revealed a number of morphological changes which indicate a marked antitumor effect of magnetic fields. These changes were maximum manifest after 20-30 sessions. High-differentiated adenocarcinoma proved to be mostly sensitive to the magnetic field action.


[MRI in patients with cardiac pacemakers: in vitro and in vivo evaluation at 0.5 tesla]

PURPOSE: MRI is currently regarded as absolutely contraindicated in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this prospective study safety and feasibility of MRI in patients with new generation pacemakers (PM) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: 14 PM models in vitro and 18 patients with implanted new generation PM underwent a MRI exam at 0.5 Tesla with standard spin, turbo spin, and gradient echo (FFE) sequences under continuous ECG-monitoring. PM inquiry was performed before and after the MRI exam, including assessment of stimulation thresholds. RESULTS: In the static magnetic field all PM switched to the asynchronous mode due to activation of the Reed switch, resulting in continuous pacing at a fixed rate. In three PM models in vitro, however, after activation of the Reed switch, there was a software-induced switch back to the demand mode. In these PM inhibition and triggering were observed after starting the MRI scan due to influence of the pulsed magnetic fields. PM program changes, damage of PM components, dislocation/torque of the PM and rapid pacing of the PM were observed neither in vitro nor in vivo. Atrial and ventricular stimulation thresholds remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: MRI at 0.5 Tesla should not be regarded as absolutely contraindicated in patients with implanted new generation PM. However, knowledge of the behaviour of the specific PM model in static and pulsed magnetic fields is required, if necessary also changes of the PM program prior to the MRI exam, continuous ECG monitoring and cardiological stand-by.


[Multimag-M magnetotherapy system of the new generation]

The Multimag-M microprocessor chronomagne-totherapy system of the new generation is described. The system provides on-line diagnosis of the pulse parameters and the breathing rate during a biotechnical feedback session. The requirements to the system software, as well as its specific features and design principles, are considered.


[New aspects of rehabilitating patients with post-traumatic defects and deformation of the maxillofacial regions]

Efficacy was compared of local magnetotherapy and electrostimulation in rehabilitation of patients with posttraumatic maxillofacial defects and deformities. A multidirectional mechanism of the two complexes on peripheral and central structures of the maxillofacial region was discovered.


[New methodological aspects in the use of cryotherapy, ultrasound, magnetotherapy and therapeutic physical exercise in the rehabilitation of gonarthrosis patients]

Gonarthritis complicated by synovitis was treated by cryo-ultrasound or cryo-magnetotherapy in combination with therapeutic exercise. The comparison of the response has shown that both complexes are highly effective. In the absence of concomitant diseases and contraindications to ultrasound it is better to use cryo-ultrasound and exercise, otherwise cryo-magnetotherapy and exercise is preferential.


[Normal development of the fruitfly Drosophila in VLF magnetic fields (author's transl)]

Attempts to substantiate irreversible actions of a variety of magnetic fields on the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, have been successful and unsuccessful in about equal numbers. The most conspicuous mutagenic effects apparently induced by pulsed HF-fields failed to appear under continuous electromagnetic irradiation. This seems to correlate the observed damage with the VLF-components of the pulsed fields. The present investigation is motivated by the occurrence of these components both in the atmosphere and in the vicinity of electrical appliances. A strain of normally viable wild type males and subnormally viable Attached X y w females was used in which the yield, and the sex ratio, of the progeny indicate, respectively, the extent of developmental damage and of sex-linked recessive lethal mutation induced by the exposure of detrimental conditions. Evaluation of 73,800 flies from subsequent generations of a control group and two test groups raised in steady, or rotating, homogeneous 9.6 kHz magnetic fields of about 2.5 G did not reveal any developmental or hereditarc load in the test groups. (Pressman 1970; Mittler 1973).


[On the contribution of magnets in sequelae of facial paralysis. Preliminary clinical study]

This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of EPOREC 1 500 magnets as an adjuvant to rehabilitation following peripheral facial paralysis. Magnetotherapy is used in many other specialties, and in particular in rheumatology. The properties of repulsion between identical poles were used to decrease the effect of sequelae in the form of contractures on the facial muscles. There were two groups of 20 patients: one group with physiotherapy only and the other with standard rehabilitation together with the use of magnets. These 40 patients had facial paralysis of various origins (trauma, excision of acoustic neuroma, Bell's palsy etc). Obviously all patients had an intact nerve. It was at the time of the development of contractures that magnets could be used in terms of evaluation of their efficacy of action on syncinesiae, contractures and spasticity. Magnets were worn at night for a mean period of six months and results were assessed in terms of disappearance of eye-mouth syncinesiae, and in terms of normality of facial tone. Improvement and total recovery without sequelae were obtained far more frequently in the group which wore magnets, encouraging us to continue along these lines.


[Optimization of the conditions for electroporation and the addition nisin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibition]

A mathematical approach was applied in order to optimize the effect of electroporation by application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and nisin addition on the inhibition of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from river sediments. This strain showed to be highly resistant to nisin as only two log cycles reduction of viable cells were obtained in the presence of 84,000 IU/ml nisin. But when a combination of bacteriocin and selected PEF treatment conditions were applied, 4.4-decimal log cycle reduction could be achieved. PEF and nisin interaction seems to be complex, as at lower electric field intensities (i.e., 5 kV/cm) an increment in the number of pulses applied clearly induced a lower inhibitory effect of nisin. At higher PEF intensities (i.e., 11 kV/cm), the inhibitory effect of nisin increased with the number of pulses applied. Results overall, the obtained indicate the possibility of combining PEF and nisin treatments in order to improve the inhibition of resistant microorganisms. The Doehlert experimental design and surface response methodology was an interesting tool to obtain or predict the optimal combination of the stress factors applied.


[Osteonecrosis: natural course and conservative therapy]

The natural course of Osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral head has yet not been evaluated sufficiently. Especially in the early forms of the disease (ARCO 0 to II) without collapse of the femoral head, useful information on the natural course could only be collected since the routine use of MR-imaging. The unspecific findings in ARCO stage I with negative radiographs are potential reversible. The "point of no return" already lies in the irreversible ARCO stage II in almost all cases. Prognosis for further progression for both early stages depends primarily on the extension and location of the lesion. Only the rare, small to medium sized lesions in the medial or central location may have a good prognostic course over a period of more than five years. The much more common large sized and lateral located lesions will have a probability of about 80% to progress to femoral head collapse within two years. Conservative therapy with single protected weight bearing has shown bad results not significantly different from the natural course of the disease. Pulsed electromagnetic fields are still discussed controversially. Until now there is no MRI controlled study available in early ON, showing superior results compared to the easy and cost-effective core decompression therapy. The extra corporal shock wave therapy has shown spontaneous pain relief in early ON. Midterm results of this new therapeutical concept are not available yet. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has shown to stimulate the repair process in an animal experiment. The preliminary clinical results of this time and cost consuming therapy are not convincing. Vasoactive drugs in combination with limited weight bearing may play a role in the conservative management of early ON (ARCO I and part of ARCO II) in the future. For the conservative therapy in ON several other substance are currently in clinical testing. The benefit of conservative therapeutical concepts in ON in the future can only be evaluated with prospective MRI controlled clinical studies. The use of cytokines in combination with surgical debridement and bone grafting of the necrotic area may be a possible therapeutical concept for the future.


[Outpatient electromagnetic therapy combined with hyperbaric oxygenation in arterial occlusive diseases]

The authors first applied hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in the outpatient clinic in 1968. Barotherapy was conducted in 107 outpatients whose ages ranged from 27 to 80 years; they had various stages of the disease of 5- to 20-year history. In 70 patients treated for obliterating diseases of the vessels by HBO in a complex with magnetotherapy by means of magnetophors, the remission lasted 1-2 years; patients treated by HBO alone had a 3-8 month remission. A prolonged positive effect was produced in 64 patients. The suggested effective and safe method is an additional one to the existing means of treating this serious and progressive disease, which can be applied successfully in outpatient clinics.


[Pathomorphology of regenerative processes in mandibular fracture after sodium succinate treatment and laser magnetotherapy in an experimental setting]

Morphological reactions in tissue adjacent to mandibular angular fracture were studied in guinea pigs treated with sodium succinate and laser magnetotherapy. Due to succinate therapy the exudative component of inflammation was less expressed in comparison with the control, macrophagal reaction and neoangiogenesis were activated, the volume of damaged muscle tissue and the incidence of suppurations decreased. The number of osteoblasts increased and new bone structures acquired a lamellar pattern earlier than in the control. Sodium succinate therapy in combination with laser magnetotherapy had a more pronounced positive effect as regards activation of macrophagal reaction and neoangiogenesis and a decrease in the area of fibrosclerotic changes in the zone of damaged muscles, where newly formed myosymplasts differentiated into myotubes and even in muscle fibers. Suppuration of the wound was prevented. Bone tissue in the fracture zone formed without preliminary formation of cartilaginous tissue, which resulted in more rapid osteogenesis (lamellar bone growth in the fracture zone).


[Permeability of erythrocyte membranes from peripheral blood after exposure to low-frequency alternating electromagnetic field]

The levels of dienic conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MD), extra-erythrocytic hemoglobin, the rate of chemiluminescence (C), total peroxidase activity (TPA) were determined on a single exposure of animals to low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field (LFPEF) and chronic exposure of 16 healthy males aged 19-25 years. After acute exposure to LEPEF, the animals showed 64-106% increases in the levels of DC and MD and the rate of C. The persons had higher TPA and C.


[Personal experience in the use of magnetotherapy in diseases of the musculoskeletal system]

Therapeutic application of pulsatile electromagnetic field in disorders of motility is recently becoming more frequent. Despite this fact information about the effectiveness of this therapy in the literature are rare. The aim of this study was therefore the treatment of 576 patients who suffered from vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. For application of pulsatile electromagnetic field MTU 500H Therapy System was used. Pulsatile electromagnetic field had a frequency valve of 4.5 mT in all studied groups and magnetic induction valve 12.5-18.75 mT in the 1st group. In the 2nd group the intensity was 5.8-7.3 mT and in the 3rd group it was 7.6-11.4 mT. The time of inclination/declination in the 1st group was 20/60 ms, in the 2nd group 40/80 ms and in the 3rd group 40/90 ms. The electromagnetic field was applied during 10 days. In the 1st-3rd day during 20 minutes and in the 4th-10th day during 30 minutes. The therapy was repeated in every patient after 3 months with values of intensity higher by 50%. In the time of pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy the patients were without pharmacotherapy or other physiotherapy. The application of pulsatile electromagnetic field is a very effective therapy of vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. The results have shown that the therapy was more effective in patients suffering from gonarthrosis, than in patients with vertebral syndrome and least effective in patients with coxarthosis. Owing to regression of oedema and pain relieve the motility of patients improved. (Tab. 3, Ref. 19.)


[Physical factors in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with chronic prostatitis complicated by impotence]

103 patients with chronic prostatitis complicated by erectile impotence were given combined treatment including shock-wave massage, mud applications, local vacuum magnetotherapy. This combination was found to stimulate copulative function, urodynamics of the lower urinary tracts, to produce an antiinflammatory effect. These benefits allow to recommend the above physical factors for management of chronic prostatitis patients with copulative dysfunction.


[Physical factors in the treatment of patients with osteoarthrosis and venous insufficiency]

Comparative evaluation of two variants of multiple modality treatment for osteoarthritis gives preference to combination of decimetric wave radiation and effervescent baths over magnetotherapy combination with effervescent baths.


[Physical parameters in the use of MRI tomography. Limitation due to physiologic reactions and guidelines. Radiation Protection Commission]

PURPOSE: The standards and regulations concerning the protection of patients and operator staff within the context of MRI are compiled. Resulting consequences regarding physical parameters are evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The static magnetic field, heating effects caused by RF-fields and acoustical noise are outlined. The actual boundaries of these parameters are compared against the relevant published standards. Peripheral stimulation limits due to pulsed gradient fields have been determined in a new clinical study. RESULTS: Many parameters recommended for the normal operating mode are already exceeded during routine MRI. Referring to our clinical study, we found that limits recommended in the MRI relevant standards are unnecessarily conservative and can actually be doubled. CONCLUSIONS: The applicable national and international standards and regulations show (at least partly) that serious differences in the definition of terms and values exist. The application of these standards would be much easier if they were made uniform. The values defined in the MR-specific standards should be adapted to actual knowledge concerning patients' safety.


[Physiological basis of a possible increase in the efficacy of the photo- and magnetotherapy of the visual nerve upon partial atrophy and ischemia]

An approach to the choice of the parameters of physiotherapeutic and biophysical influence on the visual nerve was proposed. The approach is based on parallel photo- and magnetostimulation of excitable fibers in which the morphological and electrophysiological properties of fibers and some parameters of the pathological processes associated with partial artophy and ischemia are taken into account. A method for correlating the photostimulation by light flashes (intensity 65 mWt at emission wavelength 660 nm) of a portion of the retina with the choice of the parameters of magnetic influence (amplitude 73 mT, duration of the wave front of 40 ms, and frequency of pulse sequence of about 1 Hz) on the visual nerve was developed.


[Physiotherapy methods in the rehabilitation of patients with cerebral vascular diseases]

The author has examined 650 patients aged 30-65 years with prestroke forms of cerebrovascular diseases. Basing on clinico-neurological, electrophysiological and biochemical data, five new variants of physiotherapy are proposed: transcerebral and segmental dalargin electrophoresis combined with magnetotherapy and manual therapy. Relevant practical recommendations are provided. The author's findings extend the knowledge of curative potential of physical methods and on their mechanism of action in cerebrovascular insufficiency.


[Possibilities of magnetotherapy in stabilization of visual function in patients with glaucoma]

Courses of magnetotherapy (MT) using ATOS device with 33 mT magnetic field induction were administered to 31 patients (43 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma with compensated intraocular pressure. The operation mode was intermittent, with 1.0 to 1.5 Hz field rotation frequency by 6 radii. The procedure is administered to a patient in a sitting posture with magnetic inductor held before the eye. The duration of a session is 10 min, a course consists of 10 sessions. Untreated eyes (n = 15) of the same patients were examined for control. The patients were examined before and 4 to 5 months after MT course. Vision acuity improved by 0.16 diopters, on an average, in 29 eyes (96.7%) out of 30 with vision acuity below 1.0 before treatment. Visocontrastometry was carried out using Visokontrastometer-DT device with spatial frequency range from 0.4 to 19 cycle/degree (12 frequencies) and 125 x 125 monitor. The orientation of lattices was horizontal and vertical. The contrasts ranged from 0.03 to 0.9 (12 levels). MT brought about an improvement of spatial contrast sensitivity by at least 7 values of 12 levels in 22 (84.6%) out of 26 eyes and was unchanged in 4 eyes. Visual field was examined using Humphry automated analyzer. A 120-point threshold test was used. After a course of MT, visual field deficit decreased by at least 10% in 31 (72%) out of 43 eyes, increased in 3, and was unchanged in 9 eyes; on an average, visual field deficit decreased by 22.4% vs. the initial value. After 4 to 5 months the changes in the vision acuity and visual field deficit were negligible. In controls these parameters did not appreciably change over the entire follow-up period.


[Possible mechanism of specific action of pulsed UHF-fields]

Experimental data were obtained for conditions of stimulation of mechanical vibrations in the liquid models of microwave fields. Possible role of different elastic waves modes in the formation of specific effects in pulsed HF-fields is discussed. Mathematical estimation suggests that excited shearing waves may have biological action. The results obtained suggest an acoustic nature of the action of pulsed HF-fields on biological objects.


[Possible therapeutic applications of pulsed magnetic fields]

Magnetotherapy is a relatively new, nowadays however, relatively widespread method in several medical disciplines. The mechanism proper of the favourable action of the pulsed magnetic field on the living organism is not quite clear so far, clinical investigations revealed, however, a favourable anti-inflammatory, angioedematous and analgesic therapeutic effect. The authors sought an optimal frequency of the pulsed magnetic field with regard to the character of the disease. They focused attention above all on treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions of the locomotor apparatus, ischaemia of the blood vessels of the lower extremities, dyspeptic syndrome, lactation mastitis and other diseases. One therapeutic cycle lasted 20 minutes, the mean number of cycles varied between 5.8 and 7.7. A regression of complaints was recorded as a rule after 2-3 sessions. The optimal frequency of the pulsed magnetic field seems to be a value between 10.0 and 25.0 Hz. It is useful in particular in severe conditions to repeat the therapeutic cycle after 2-3 months. The advantage of this therapeutic method is the minimal number of contraindications.


[Postoperative management with pulsed high frequency electromagnetic energy. A clinical study of 38 patients with rhinoseptoplasty]

The effect of high frequent electromagnetic radiation pulse (PHEE) on the resorption of postoperative hematomas was investigated in 38 patients who underwent rhinoseptoplasty. 18 patients were treated twice a day using a diapulse equipment, whereas the patients in the control group did not get radiation. In the radiated patients, measurements of the infraorbital hematoma showed accelerated resorption-contrary to the course of the supraorbital hematoma. Diapulse radiation also prevented the enlargement of hematomas that usually proceeds until the third postoperative day. Results of undiminished resorption in the upper eyelid may be caused by inadequate penetration of PHEE or a methodical mistake in the analysis. Additionally, patients treated with PHEE needed a shorter course of postoperative antiphlogistic treatment when compared to the control group. The treatment might further be improved by preoperative use of PHEE or additional radiation of the liver, spleen, and adrenal gland. The results of our investigation showed the improvement of wound healing by using PHEE.


[Posttraumatic disturbances in patients with slight craniocerebral injury and their correction via various variants of dynamic magnetotherapy]

Examination of 90 patients in intermediate period of slight craniocerebral injury before and after use of curative technologies with including of dynamic magnetotherapy suboccipitally or transcranially. It is established, that choosing rehabilitation methods, it is necessary to take into consideration clinical manifestation of disease, state of cerebral blood circulation, vegetative nervous system, bioelectrogenesis of cerebrum.


[Practical aspects of taking measurements of electromagnetic fields in the surrounding of overhead transmission lines]

Identification of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of high voltage overhead transmission lines requires taking measurements and determining, on their basis, the maximum values of electric (Emax) and magnetic (Hmax) field strength, as well as the width of the area with electric field strength exceeding 1 kV/m. Measurements should be carried out in the places, where the distance between phase wires and the ground is smallest, and their results converted to conditions expected at the most disadvantageous parameters of the work of line in terms of their effect on the environment. This requires taking into consideration the maximum voltage of the transmission line, as well as the highest acceptable temperature of wires. In a single-circuit line, convertion of the measured values to expected maximum values of Emax and Hmax is not difficult, although it requires knowledge of cross-profiles in spans, in which measurements were taken. However, recounting the values of magnetic field strength produced by two-circuit lines creates a serious problem. Since in the majority of cases, the measurements in the surrounding of two-circuit lines are carried out at asymmetrical currents in both circuits, converting their results to symmetrical currents of the lines is practically impossible. Therefore, the results of the measurements of magnetic field strength carried out at the asymmetrical current of a two-circuit line cannot provide the basis for assessing the possibility of exceeding the allowable value of magnetic field intensity determined in the binding regulations. Such an assessment can only be done on the basis of the results of relevant calculations.


[Pulsating electromagnetic fields in treatment of injuries and illnesses of the locomotor system--an overview and meta-analysis]

AIM: Recently, pulsating electromagnetic fields have gained wide attraction in the treatment of various orthopaedic diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of this therapeutic tool. METHOD: All clinical studies which deal with pulsating electromagnetic fields in the treatment of orthopaedic conditions are reviewed. To elucidate the physiological basis of the method, important experimental studies are considered. RESULTS: 37 clinical studies with 3379 patients are evaluated, of which only a minority were performed as prospective studies with control groups. The results of the studies, performed on patients with various orthopaedic conditions, are not unequivocal and partly inconsistent. In view of the physiological basis many questions remain unanswered. CONCLUSIONS: At present the use of pulsating electromagnetic fields in the treatment of orthopaedic diseases is not scientifically proven.


[Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF)--results in evidence based medicine]

Therapy with electromagnetic fields has a very old tradition in medicine. The indications are widespread, whereas little is known about the effects. Controlled randomizied studies with positive results for pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are available for osteotomies, the healing of skin wounds, and osteoarthritis. Comparison of the studies is difficult because of the different doses applied and intervals of therapy. Therefore recommendations regarding an optimal dosis and interval are, depending on the disease, quite variable.


[Pulsed magnetic fields--their possibilities in pediatric neurology]

The author reviews information on the use of a pulsatile magnetic field with defined parameters in some child diseases of the CNS according to his experience assembled during the past five years. PMP was applied in 17 cases with spinal amyotrophy type M. Werdnig-Hoffman and in 16 cases with DMO. In both diseases treatment was previously only symptomatic. PMP frequencies of alpha EEG waves were used during application on the area of the head and a different frequency for whole body treatment focused on muscular dystonia. The author draws attention to the specificity of biotropic parameters of the applied magnetic field.


[Pulsed magnetic fields. Observations in 353 patients suffering from chronic pain]

Three hundred-fifty-three patients with chronic pain have been treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields. In this work the Authors show the result obtained in the unsteady follow-up (2-60 months). The eventual progressive reduction of benefits is valued by Spearman's test. We noted the better results in the group of patients with post-herpetic pain (deafferentation) and in patients simultaneously suffering from neck and low back pain.


[Reaction of the endocrine system and peripheral blood of rats to a single and chronic exposure to pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic field]

Wistar male rats underwent a single exposure for 20 min, 1 and 2.5 hour to a pulsed electromagnetic field of 20 mT or a single exposure for 2.5 hour and a chronic exposure for 6 hours a day during 30 days to a pulsed electromagnetic field of 0.1 mT, the pulse time and an interval between pulses being 10(-2) sec. As a result, the experimental animals showed changes in the activity of the adrenals, thyroid and sex glands as well as eosinopenia and lymphopenia. The concentration of thyroid hormones and lymphocytes remained lowered during 2 months after a single exposure to 20 mT. In some cases the exposure modified the physiological responses of rats to an acute stress-5-hour immobilization.


[Reaction of the ultrastructure of the rat spinal ganglion to exposure to a pulsed electromagnetic field]

White noninbred male rats have been subjected to a total effect of the impulsive electromagnetic field (IEMF) of 100 mT for 1, 3, 5, 10 days, 15 min daily. IEMF produces an essential morphofunctional reorganization in neurons, gliocytes, blood vessels of the rat spinal ganglion. Light neurons demonstrate an earlier reaction. Manifestation of the ultrastructural changes depends on multiplicity of the IEMF action: at initial effects they concern predominantly cytoplasmic structures of the neurons, at multiple effects--nuclear structures also become involved, reactive changes in gliocytes appear and increase. Early and distinctly seen reaction to the IEMF effect demonstrates endothelium of blood vessels. The changes revealed in the spinal ganglion are reversible, but the time of restoration of the normal ultrastructure directly depends on multiplicity of the IEMF action.


[Regional cerebral angiodystonia in the practice of a neuropathologist and therapist]

Altogether 108 patients with regional cerebral angiodystonia were examined using rheoencephalography, measurements of temporal and venous pressure and functional tests (nitroglycerin and bicycle ergometry). Three variants of abnormalities connected with regional cerebral angiodystonia were distinguished: dysfunction of the inflow, derangement of the venous outflow, and initial functional venous hypertonia. The patients were treated with nonmedicamentous therapy (electroanalgesia, magnetotherapy, iontotherapy).


[Rehabilitation treatment of patients with uncomplicated fractures of the spine at a hospital rehabilitation center]

The authors make an analysis of treatment of 188 patients with noncomplicated compressive fractures of the vertebral column in the thoracolumbar part performed at the stationary rehabilitation center. The course of restorative treatment was as long as 31-40 days and included individual and group trainings of exercise therapy, massage, hydrokinesotherapy, thermo-, electro-, photo- and magnetotherapy. Results of the treatment were followed in 81 patients. Excellent and good results were obtained in 43 patients (53%), unsatisfactory--in 7 patients (8.6%). The period of follow-up observation was from 1 month to 1 year.


[REM suppression induced by digital mobile radio telephones]

In the present study we investigated the effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields irradiated by digital mobile radio telephones on sleep in healthy humans. Besides a hypnotic effect with shortening of sleep onset latency, a REM suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep was found under exposure to the field. Moreover, spectral analysis revealed an increased spectral power density of the EEG signal during REM sleep, especially in the alpha frequency band. These results emphasise the necessity to carry out further investigations on the interaction of this type of electromagnetic fields and the human organism.


[Some changes in bioelectrical activity of the brain during short regulated exposure to pulsed electrical fields]

It was shown that short (10 s) exposures of white rats being at rest to impulse (1 ms) electromagnetic fields (170 A/m) at a fixed frequency of pulse sequence in the range of the theta-rhythm do not change the contribution to the electrocorticogram (ECoG) of the harmonic whose frequency corresponds to the frequency of pulse sequence. By contrast, treatments with a frequency-pulse modulation at which the interpulse intervals corresponding to the frequency of the harmonic being studied were not observed throughout the range of exposure but at which their high correlation was provided, assisted in decreasing the contribution of the harmonic to the ECoG spectrum. If the functional state of the central nervous system was changed by drugs leading to the predominance of the short-wavelength activity in the ECoG, both regimes of exposure significantly affected the contribution of the harmonic in the ECoG, whose direction and dynamics depended on the excitability of neurons.


[Sources of interference for cardiac pacemakers. Technical improvements of pacemakers--risks in the medical realm]

Such new technologies are associated with potential problems for patients with pacemakers which have not yet been adequately investigated. External sources of interference may inhibit or, in the case of dual chamber devices, trigger, the pacemaker, change its program or cause thermal damage to electrode tips leading to elevation of the stimulation threshold, or may destroy both hardware and software components. To prevent such problems, protective measures such as screening, sensitivity filters, asynchronous stimulation, and the bipolar electrodes have been developed. Detection by the pacemaker of a constant source of interference automatically activates an anti-interference circuit providing a fixed stimulating frequency. In contrast, interference by a pulsed or strongly amplitude-modulated signal can inhibit pacemaker function for a lengthy period and thus cause symptoms and possibly syncope.


[Specificity of the effect of a super high frequency pulse-modulated electromagnetic field on evoked potentials of the cat visual, auditory,and sensomotor cortex upon stimulation with light and sound]

Effects of a pulsed-modulated superhigh frequency field (950 MHz, peak power of 300 mkW/cm2 and 1.5 mW/cm2, pulse duration of 1 ms, single pulse irradiation mode, a pause between an electromagnetic pulse and an optic or auditory stimulus--20 ms) on the cat's brain evoked potentials were investigated in the optic, auditory and sensomotor cortex using acoustic and visual stimulation. It was established that during an exposure to electromagnetic waves with peak power of 300 mkW/cm2 there were no reliable changes of the amplitude characteristics; but the amplitude of the auditory evoked potentials was reliably higher and the amplitude of the optic evoked potentials was reliably lower when they were affected by an electromagnetic field with peak power of 1.5 mW/cm2.


[Streptodecase magnetophoresis in the Polius-3 treatment of post-traumatic intraocular bleeding]

The paper describes drug magnetophoresis, a new treatment for posttraumatic intraocular hemorrhage, which is made by a Polyus-2 devices intended for magnetotherapy and magnetophoresis. It also shows the advantage of the treatment, gives data on its clinical use.


[Study on testicle tissue of rats in extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields]

The testicle tissue's pathological changes of Wistar rats in low frequency electromagnetic fields were observed and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The components of secondary structure were examined by use of derivative and curve-fitting techniques. The results showed some significant differences between the exposed group and the sham-exposed group on spectra. Especially, the analysis on the components of secondary structure of amide link I bond revealed a marked decrease in the ordered secondary structure of the exposed group. These findings indicate there will be damage to the testicle tissues that have been exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields for a long time.


[Th importance of spectral analysis in the evaluation of the effects of magnetic pulsed fields on alpha rhythm]

By means of spectral analysis, this research of alpha rhythm's modifications upon effects of electromagnetic fields makes conspicuous an increasing frequency and amplitude of this rhythm, proportionally to the time passage, and proposes questions and interpretations.


[The characteristics of the geroprotective action of magnetotherapy in elderly patients with combined cardiovascular pathology]

Central hemodynamics, diastolic and pumping functions of the heart, myocardial reactivity, microcirculation and biological age of cardiovascular system were studied in 66 elderly patients suffering from hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The patients received systemic magnetotherapy which produced a geroprotective effect as shown by improved microcirculation, myocardial reactivity, central hemodynamics reducing biological age of cardiovascular system and inhibiting its ageing.


[The clinico-biochemical, functional, immunological and cellular characteristics of the body reactions in patients with the initial stages of hypertension to the effect of a magnetic field]

The article presents a comprehensive evaluation of major clinical, laboratory and functional indices in the time course of magnetotherapy as well as during administration of such treatments. The most promising alternative appears to be that involving the use of immunologic and cellular parameters as markers of efficacy of therapeutic action of magnetic fields in early stages of hypertensive disease. Causes for effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the above treatment option are analyzed, approaches to eliminating those are outlined, the main indications and contraindications are determined, merits and demerits of magnetotherapy are drawn attention to.


[The development of clinical application of the rejuvenator and a study of its mechanism for the treatment of functional erectile dysfunction]

In this paper, we describe the development and clinical application of the Rejuvenator and report the result of our study on its mechanism for the treatment of functional erectile dysfunction (FED). The Rejuvenator, which can be used both at home and in hospitals to treat patients with FED, was developed on the basis of our clinical practice in the light of the modern theory of traditional Chinese medicine and by integrating multiple techniques of engineering science. It works by means of the paraoral use of the special herbal medicine, electro-magnetic effects, thermal moxibustion and drug-ingression. 2250 patients with FED received the treatment. Using combined electro-neurophysiological techniques, pulsed ultrasound Doppler and microcomputer image-scanning, we further studied the mechanism of the Rejuvenator for the treatment of FED. The total effective rate was 92%. The clinical data and result of study indicate that the Rejuvenator for the patients with functional erectile dysfunction is a safe, effective and scientific new method.


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