iMRS 2000 - PEMF Publications
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PEMF Publications

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1301

[Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial First part: clinical evaluation]

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare SPA therapy (ST) with pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in chronic neck pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years, neck pain of more than 3 months' duration and pain score>30 mm on a visual analog scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria were contraindication to ST or PEMF. The protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Grenoble Hospital. Randomisation to the ST (n=44) and PEMF groups (n=42) was blinded. The main outcome measure was number of improved patients at 6 months in each group. A patient was considered improved if pain score decreased by more than 20%. Secondary measures were score on the Copenhagen and MOS SF-36 scales. Evaluation and intent-to-treat analysis were also blinded. RESULTS: Patients' preferences were for PEMF. At 6 months, in the PEMF group, 33 patients were improved, 5 not improved and 4 lost to follow-up. In the ST group, 24 patients were improved, 14 not improved and 6 lost to follow-up, for significantly greater improvement in the PEMF than ST group (p=0.02). Significant improvement was seen in both groups in terms of pain score, Copenhagen scale score and score on some dimensions of the MOS SF-36 survey. CONCLUSION: PEMF seems to be superior to standard ST without massage in control of neck pain. The difference between groups, although perhaps biased, seem to suggest the importance of our conclusions.

1302

[Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial. Second part: medicoeconomic approach]

We report the results of a cost-effectiveness evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and spa therapy (ST) versus usual care (control) for chronic neck pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 80 years with pain in the neck area of more than 3 months' duration and no contraindications for PEMF therapy and ST. Randomization to the ST (n=25) and PEMF groups (n=26) was blinded, as was collection of data. Non-included subjects (n=29) underwent usual care. The trial respected the Helsinki declaration, and informed consent was obtained from subjects. The analysis was intent to treat; the main outcome measure was increase in health dimension scores on the MOS SF-36 in terms of increase in French health care costs from 6 months preceding to 6 months after the start of the study. RESULTS: The increase in health care costs was less for the PEMF group (+68 euro+/-539 [95% confidence interval (CI)]: -145.0+281) than the ST and control groups. The increase tended to be less, but not significantly, for the ST group (+373+/-938 euro [95% CI, -14.0+76.0]) than for controls (+618+/-2715 euro [95% CI, -434.0+167.0]). The gain of one physical MOS SF-36 unit during one year cost 3400 euro [95% CI, -6759+13 100] for the PEMF group, 29,000 euro [95% CI, -1093+59 375] for the ST group and 95076 euro [95% CI, -66 769+256 923] for the control group, but the differences were not significant. COMMENTARY: These results suggest a potential cost-effectiveness for ST and particularly PEMF as compared to usual care in chronic cervical pain. Our results perhaps lack significance probably because of lack of statistical power and do not distinguish costs related or not to chronic cervical pain.

1303

[Aspects of diagnosis and treatment of the facial nerve neuropathy]

As many as 86 patients with neuropathy of the facial nerve complicated by development of postneuritic muscular contractures were examined. Based on the clinical-and-neurophysiological investigation, findings from rheoencephalography, electroencephalography, echoencephaloscopy, electrodiagnosis of the facial nerve, clinical variants of the facial nerve function return to normal were defined together with causes of development of muscular contractures. Efficiency is shown of use of acupuncture and magnetotherapy combined in treatment of the above trouble.

1305

[Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation]

Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

1307

[Can local therapy of joint syndrome with Dolgit cream be used as an alternative to systemic nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs in rheumatic diseases?]

AIM: The trial of therapeutic effect of local therapy with dolgit cream of the joint syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthrosis (OA) and juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cream dolgit was used locally with assessment of its effect by pains at rest, movement, palpation, swelling in 169, 98 and 102 patients with RA, OA and JCA, respectively. RESULTS: Subjective improvement was recorded in 75.6% of RA and 90% of OA patients, objective--in 80.9 and 87.2%, respectively. The cream enables a 30-50% reduction in daily dose of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs in 1/3 and 1/4 OA and RA patients, respectively. In JCA patients dolgit relieved symptoms of local inflammation. The response was growing in combination of dolgit with dimexide or magnetotherapy. Some of the OA patients experienced local skin itch which was not registered in children. No other side effects arose. CONCLUSION: Cream dolgit is effective in the treatment of joint syndrome in rheumatic patients, is well tolerated and may replace systemic nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs in some patients.

1308

[Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with neurosensory hearing loss before and after magnetotherapy]

Magnetotherapy effects on cerebral hemodynamics were studied using rheoencephalography (REG). When the treatment results and changes in cerebral hemodynamics were compared it was evident that normalization or improvement of vascular status in vertebrobasilar and carotid territories registered at REG results in better hearing. This confirms the role of vascular factor in pathogenesis of neurosensory hypoacusis of different etiology and effectiveness of magnetotherapy in such patients.

1309

[Cerebral use of a pulsating magnetic field in neuropsychiatry patients with long-term headache]

A pulsed magnetic field (f = 260 Hz; t = 3 ms; induction B = 1.9 mT; gradient = 0.5 mT/cm) was applied at 40 patients with headaches of various etiology. The change of cephalea intensity was evaluated according the patients statements. These statements were further compared with the changes of the EEG. By means of frequency analysis of the EEG significant changes in percentages of delta and alpha 1 activities (7.5-9.5/s) were stated after the application of the real treatment regarding the sham treatment. Any treatment lasted one half hour. The retreat of subjective difficulties as well as the amelioration of EEG were stated accordingly at headaches, which were bounded with cerebral arteriosclerosis, with states after cerebral concussion, with depressive neurosis, or with tension headache. Pulsed magnetic field could be applied only there, where the visual evaluation stated EEG as physiological.

1310

[Change in charge of the erythrocyte membrane during exposure to a pulsed electromagnetic field]

By means of hydrophobic anion phenyldicarbaundecaboron electrophoresis in PAA gels and filtration through "Millipore" filters an increase of the total membrane charge and decrease in the amount of membrane-bound proteins (actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatedehydrogenase) after erythrocyte ghosts exposition in pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF, 1-10 Hz pulse frequency, 24 mTesla) were demonstrated. The effects of PEMF are explained by the changes in the distribution of electrostatic charges near the membrane protein-protein binding sites.

1313

[Changes in prostatic circulation in response to laser therapy and magnetic therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia]

The results of preoperative preparation were analysed in 59 patients with prostatic benign hyperplasia (PBH) subjected to TUR. Treatment outcomes were assessed by transrectal ultrasound (color Doppler mapping) in two groups of patients. Group 1 received combined therapy including transrectal laser radiation of the prostate, group 2--transrectal magnetotherapy. The analysis showed that laser radiation reduced insignificantly the size of the prostate and adenomatous node, improved microcirculation and circulation in the prostate. This resulted in relief of inflammation and reduction of the number of postoperative inflammatory complications. Transrectal magnetotherapy has a positive effect on vascularization and hemodynamics of the prostate, local immunity, contamination of the tissues with pathogenic flora.

1314

[Clinical application of magnetic pulsing fields in paranasal sinusitis treatment]

In this work were described advantages of the pulsating magnetic fields in sinusitis treatment as independent and helping method.

1315

[Clinical observation on auricular point magnetotherapy for treatment of senile low back pain]

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of auricular point magnetotherapy and auricular point sticking of Vaccaria seed on senile low back pain. METHODS: Sixty cases, aged 60 or over 60 years with back pain, were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control group and a test group. The control group were treated with auricular sticking of Vaccaria seed with no pressing, and the test group with sticking magnetic bead of 66 gauss each piece with no pressing. Auricular points, Shenmen, Kidney, Bladder, Yaodizhui, Gluteus, Liver and Spleen were selected. Three weeks constituted one course. The effects before, during and after the course were assessed by questionnaire about back pain. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the test group the back pain was more effectively improved, including reducing pain and numbness in the back and the legs, decreasing the disorder of physical strength induced by this disease, and improving daily life quality of the patient. Follow-up survey for 2-4 weeks showed the effects still were kept. CONCLUSION: Auricular magnetotherapy can effectively improve senile back pain.

1316

[Clinical study on painless labor under drugs combined with acupuncture analgesia]

To study the analgesia efficacy of drugs combined with acupuncture analgesia for painless labor, 462 normal pregnancy women were observed. During the latent phase in labor, several analgesia methods: acupuncture analgesia, analgesics, magnetotherapy and auricular acupressure, TENS combined with dihydroetorphine were used respectively. While the intrauterine pressure and the peripheral content of beta-EP were measured during labor, the experiments of SEPS were also performed on healthy adults to demonstrate the analgesia efficacy of those analgesia methods. The combination of drugs with acupuncture is an excellent method for painless labor without any complications and all the mothers and babies are safety. The effectiveness is 97.5%. The results demonstrate that the mechanism of analgesia efficacy should be regulated the incoordinate uterine action and improve the hypertonic status of uterus, but also can decrease the pain threshold and elevate the tolerance of uterine contractions during labor.

1317

[Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis]

Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications.

1319

[Complex stimulation of the locomotor and psycholingual develop- ment of children with perinatal lesions of the central nervous system]

In 121 children with perinatal CNS damage a combined therapy was performed including, besides routine drug treatment, imitation stimulation of age-matched posture-++-tonic attitudes and motor skills, metameric reflexotherapy aimed at the CNS region lesioned, magnetotherapy, electric laser puncture targeted at correction of dysfunctioning brain structures. Treatment efficiency was controlled by the brain "development profile" derived from formalized neurological and neuropsychological investigations, and electroneuromyography. The efficiency of the therapy was considerably decreased by the 3rd semester of life.

1321

[Contrast enhancement of x-ray images on layers exposed to a superimposed electric field]

A method of raising the sensitivity of x-ray photomaterials using a pulsed electric field is considered. Methods for raising contrast of photo images by changing stages of x-ray film postexposure processing have been proposed. Processing in the proposed enhancing compounds makes it possible not only to raise sensitivity by one order or more but also to preserve a contrast coefficient value. Raising the contrast of photomaterials is important in medical radiography irrespective of electric fields imposing methods, therefore, it can be used in some radiodiagnostic procedures.

1322

[Correction of abnormal lipid peroxidation in treatment of chronic prostatitis]

Lipid peroxidation activity is an essential factor in development of chronic inflammation of the prostate when local and general antioxidant defense are diminished. This fact says in favor of using antioxidants in the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Positive effects of nonenzymic and enzymic bioantioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin, respectively) were achieved in combination with rectal magnetotherapy.

1323

[Correction of local and central disorders in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis in usage of amus-01-intramag unit]

Combined use of dynamic magnetotherapy of local and central action in combination with antibacterial endourethral therapy and rectal administration of vitaprost arrests symptoms of chronic prostatitis. Combination of local and total dynamic magnetotherapy with application of AMUS-01-INTRAMAG unit improves erection quality in 81.8% males with psychogenic form of erectile dysfunction. There was also improvement of spermogram parameters and relieve of asthenovegetative syndrome.

1324

[Current methods of pathogenetic therapy of infectious-allergic polyradiculoneuritis]

This is a survey of the experience in using corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, immunodepressants, hyperbaric oxygenation, laser and magnetotherapy in treating the infectious-allergic Guillain-Barre polyradiculoneuritis. The indications and counter-indications to individual techniques are presented as related to the character and course of the disease. The principles of interrelation of these techniques with other drug and physical therapies are discussed. The authors infer that combination of plasmapheresis with corticosteroids is the best for acute polyradiculoneuritis and prolonged use of maintenance doses of corticosteroids and immunodepressants, physical methods and gymnastics are recommended for chronic polyradiculoneuritis.

1326

[Cyclicity, reversibility and compensation of magnetobiological reactions in isolated cells and tissues]

Cell sensitivity to a constant magnetic field (CMF) of 100 = 200 Oe was studied on a fibroblast culture using time-lapse microfilming. It was expressed in the phasic development of the motility of cells, intracellular structures and inclusions: a short-term latent phase (10-15 min), an excitation phase (1.5-2 h) and a suppression phase (up to the end of exposure). After field removal the return of cells to the initial state with a slight excess (in 1.5-2 h) was noted. The phasic development, reversibility and compensation of magnetobiological reactions were later on confirmed in studies on the inhibition in CMF of 400-600 Oe of the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and peptidase in isolated surviving rat skeletal muscles, liver and kidney as well as on a model of the reaction of a cytopathogenic effect of lymphocytes from patients with rheumatic fever on human embryonic fibroblasts where a noticeable effect of inhibition with the CMF action on the system of lymphocytes-fibroblasts and, on the contrary, of its activation with adding to fibroblasts lymphocytes preexposed in CMF of 400-600 Oe for 1 and 24 h were revealed and interpreted as supercompensation of the inhibited enzymatic activity of immunocompetent cells. The phasic development, reversibility and compensation of magnetobiological reactions should be necessarily taken into account in working out magnetotherapy.

1327

[Danger of cellular telephones and their relay stations]

Cellular phones and their base stations emit pulsed microwaves in the environment. Cellular phone users are exposed in the near field and, under this condition, a large part of the electromagnetic energy is absorbed by the head, leading to an increased brain temperature. The general population is exposed under far field conditions to an electromagnetic intensity depending on the distance from the base station, passive re-emitters, the number of communications maintained by the base station and their position in relation to antennae (in front of the antenna or behind). Biological effects have been reported, such as radiofrequency sickness, electroencephalographic and blood pressure changes and also cancer risks in humans and animals exposed to microwave irradiation. Some European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, etc.) have taken measures to protect their populations.

1328

[Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis]

Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

1329

[Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters]

A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

1330

[Design of MC-III low frequency pulsed strong magnetic fields generator]

In this paper, We designed and accomplished a low frequency pulsed strong magnetic fields generator, which provides a pulsed magnetic field with the intensity range from 0.1-2.5 T and the adjusted time interval of pulse. This device is easy to operate and performs reliably. It can work steady for a long time and has been successful used in the experiments of biological effects of electromagnetics.

1331

[Design principles of the POLIMAG-01 basic model]

The design principles and functional capabilities of the basic model of the POLIMAG-01 magnetotherapy apparatus are described. Technical characteristics of the apparatus are specified. Original engineering solutions involved in the apparatus design provide local, distributed, and general magnetotherapy.

1334

[Disorders of locomotor system and effectiveness of physiotherapy in coal miners]

BACKGROUND: The aim of the survey was to analyze the efficacy of physiotherapy applied in coal miners as well as to assess their locomotor system load and the effects of working conditions in mines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire survey covered a group of 51 miners, aged 28-76 years (mean, 54 years), undergoing physiotherapeutic procedures in the mine out-patient clinic during the first quarter of 2003. RESULTS: The survey revealed that lumbosacral disorders were the most frequent locomotor system complaints reported by miners, especially those who work in a bending down position. According to the clinical data, spondylosis and allied disorders were the main reasons for pain in this part of the body. Having analyzed the relationship between age and occurrence of back pains, the majority of complaints were found in the 46-55 age group (two complaints per one respondent). The analysis of the association between back pains and duration of employment revealed that the complaints for the locomotor system occurred already after a five-year employment. CONCLUSIONS: The survey showed that the application of physiotherapeutic procedures diminished the back pain in the study group by 2.83 on average on the 0-10 scale. It was also found that magnetotherapy proved to be the most effective method in treating the spinal degenerative changes.

1335

[Does alternative medical equipment result in pacemaker dysfunction?]

Employment of alternative therapeutic measures is increasing in Denmark. Some of this equipment employs magnetic fields in the therapeutic strategy. This may involve interference with the function of electronic equipment. Electronic interference may, in certain situations, influence pace-maker function. In the worst cases, it may be imagined that the situation may endanger life for persons who are dependent on pace-makers. When a pace-maker is exposed to a magnetic field of a certain strength, the type of pacing is changed to a fixed frequency. Some pace-maker types carry out a built-in test programme when exposed to magnetic influence (vario- or threshold test). The magnetic influence may involve discomfort for the wearer of the pace-maker, but does not endanger life. Investigation of stationary magnetic fields from alternative medical equipment resulted in disturbance of pace-maker function in an isolated case. Pulsating magnetic fields may result in possible induction of electric current which may be wrongly interpreted by the pacemaker. The results of this may be that the pace-maker does not send out pace impulses. As protection from continuous electric noise, pace-makers have a built-in electronic safety circuit (dual-demand). When this is activated, the pace-maker will stimulate with a basic frequency. It is recommended that equipment which employs magnetic fields in treatment should be measured before being employed on pace-maker wearers.

1337

[Dynamic magnetotherapy use in comprehensive treatment phlegmons of maxillofacial region and mandible fractures]

145 patients (60 with phlegmons of submandibular and submental regions, 85--with fractures of mandible) were observed and treated with the use of moving pulse magnetic field (MPMF) produced by special apparatus (AMO-ATOS-E, <>, Saratov-city), 60 patients with the same pathology were treated by traditional physical methods and served as control. Use of MPMF led to quicker patient recovery: quicker reduction (if compared with traditional physical methods of treatment) of oedema and soft tissue inflammatory infiltration, quicker relief from inflammatory reaction (according to data of cytokinin profile), improvement of tissue blood supply in the region of fractures in patients with mandible fractures. As the result--we had shortening treatment terms of such patients and complication number reduction.

1338

[Dynamics of vegetative indicators induced by low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF-puncture in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration]

Low-frequency magnetic fields and EHF-therapy have been used in correction of autonomic homeostasis in workers exposed to vibration for different periods of time. The workers suffered from early arterial hypertension. Vegetative status and central hemodynamics improved best in workers exposed to vibration for less than 5 years. If the exposure was 6-15 years, a positive trend occurred in the tension of regulatory mechanisms. Workers with long exposure to vibration suffering from vagotonia showed an inadequate response of the autonomic parameters to treatment. This necessitates enhancement of therapeutic measures with medicines.

1339

[Effect of a "running" pulse magnetic field on certain humoral indicators and physical ability to work in patients with neurocirculatory hypo- and hypertension]

The influence of "running" impulse magnetic field in patients with neurocirculatory hypo- and hypertension was studied. It has been determined that magnetotherapy in all patients increased physical load tolerability and at the same time produced different effects on hemodynamics (lowering blood pressure in hypertension and increasing it in hypotension). In patients with neurocirculatory hypotension the slightly expressed positive clinical effect was obtained, that makes "running" impulse magnetic field therapy useless in this pathology. At the same time in patients with neurocirculatory hypertension "running" impulse magnetic field therapy resulted in significant improvement of physical tolerability, improvement of patients general condition, blood pressure decrease, lowering of pressor power generation concentration, correcting effect on aldosterone blood content. These data witness for the usefulness of this method in treatment of patients with neurocirculatory hypertension.

1340

[Effect of a flow-frequency alternating magnetic field on the microflora and healing of burn wounds]

Under observation were 77 patients with burned hands. It was shown that the application of the alternating low frequency magnetic field resulted in the inhibition of the microbial flora of burn wounds, raised the sensitivity of staphylococci and blue pus bacillus to a number of reserve antibiotics, accelerated the healing of superficial burns and preparation of the wounds for autodermoplasty after deep burns. The authors recommend to use magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of burned hands.

1342

[Effect of ATP and glutaminic acid on carbohydrate-energy and nitrogen metabolism in the rat brain and liver under the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field]

Oxidative phosphorylation, content of lactate, creatine phosphate, ammonia and glutamine were studied as affected by ATP and glutaminic acid in the brain and liver of rat subjected to the action of the pulsed electromagnetic field of 7 kHz frequency (72 kA/m, 15 seances). ATP (1 mg per 100 g of weight) was found to have a normalizing effect on the processes of nitrogen metabolism in the rat brain, ATP increasing the intenstiy of the oxidative phosphorylation in the tissues of intact rats, has no analogous influence on the irradiated animals. With administration of glutaminic acid (5 mg per 100 g of weight) the processes of oxidative phosphorylation and nitrogen metabolism, disturbed under the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic field are normalized.

1343

[Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension]

Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished.

1344

[Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on intracellular free calcium in HepG2 cells]

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). METHODS: Fura-2 loaded HepG2 cells were exposed to 1.55 mT (average value), 16 Hz pulsed magnetic fields for 60 min and to 300 mT, 2 Hz rotating magnetic fields for 5 min, and then [Ca(2+)]i was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. [Ca(2+)]i of HepG2 cells was also measured when they were exposed to 0.9 mT [root mean square (rms)], 16 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields in real time. RESULTS: The R values (F(340) nm/F(380) nm) of the control and the exposed group were 2.4519 +/- 0.2378 and 2.5266 +/- 0.2915 respectively after HepG2 cells were exposed to 1.55 mT, 16 Hz magnetic fields, 1.365 0 +/- 0.0626 and 1.3602 +/- 0.0771 respectively to 300 mT, 2 Hz rotating magnetic fields. The ratios of the trendline slope [r((501 - 1,000)) / r((0 - 500))] from the data of R values were 1.1213 +/- 0.4559 and 1.0727 +/- 0.1971 respectively (P > 0.05), and the ratios of the intercept [b((501 - 1,000)) / b((0 - 500))] from the trendline were 0.9912 +/- 0.0098 and 0.9979 +/- 0.0060 (P > 0.05) when HepG2 cells were exposed to the 0.9 mT, 16 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields. CONCLUSION: The effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on [Ca(2+)]i of HepG2 cells under the experimental condition has not been found.

1345

[Effect of general magnetotherapy on specific activity of blood phagocytes in patients with ischemic heart disease]

In general magnetotherapy for patients with hyporeactive phagocytes (less than 67% from the level of normal chelicoluminescent response) the adequate level of magnetic induction is 1 mT, for patients with normoreactive phagocytes--0.5 mT and for patients with hyperreactive phagocytes (more than 133% from the level of normal chelicoluminescent response)--0.75 mT daily.

1346

[Effect of infrared radiation and combination of it with constant and alternating magnetic fields on the recuperative processes in the thymus, liver, and blood of stressed rats]

Changes in thymic cells activity in stressed animals were compared to the level of 11-oxycorticosteroids in the blood and antioxidant hepatic activity in exposure of the hepatic projection region and solar plexus to varying doses of infrared radiation and its combination with constant or alternating magnetic fields. It was shown that combined action of constant or variable (pulsed with negative semiperiods) magnetic fields and infrared radiation in the above exposure promotes optimal conditions for regeneration in stressed rats.

1347

[Effect of low frequency magnetic fields used in magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation on the rehabilitation results of patients after ischemic stroke]

New methods of rehabilitation should be introduced in order to reduce disability resulting from stroke. During the twelve months of follow-up, effect of low frequency magnetic field (If mf) on the course of patient rehabilitation following ischemic stroke was evaluated on in-patient (acute and subacute period of the stroke) and outpatient (chronic period) basis with the use of Mathew et al's and Barthel's scales. Lf mf (20 procedures of 20-min. duration) of magnetotherapy (I group--placebo, II--group 5.6 mT induction, 10 Hz frequency and sinusoidal shape, III group--2.8 mT induction, 10 Hz frequency and sinusoidal shape) and magnetostimulation (IV group--M1P1 program of Viofor JPS system, 16 min a day) was applied as early as in the subacute period of the stroke (1-8 weeks). The data obtained were presented in the form of percentage changes in the pain levels as well as in the form of the arithmetical mean and standard deviation (X +/- SD). The ANOVA test was used for a statistical evaluation of the data obtained in the tests. The results obtained indicate beneficial effects of If mf in the III and IV group of patients in the Barthel's scale and Mathew scale, which were observed during the examination 12 months after the stroke. The recommended doses of If mf seem to be adequate to obtain therapeutic effects and may be used in the early period of rehabilitation. The neurological and functional improvement persisted for a long-period of the out-patient treatment, which was confirmed during the control examination 12 months after the ischemic stroke. As no adverse effects (which could be attributed to If mf), were observed, this method of physical therapy can be recognized as a safe one and worth making popular in clinical practice.

1348

[Effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the individual functional systems of the body]

This paper is a review of recent publications about the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) (constant and pulsed) on the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and blood systems of experimental animals and industrial workers exposed to them. It is reported that the regulatory systems (nervous and endocrine) are highly sensitive to EMF. It is obvious that investigations of hormone-receptor interactions can help better understand EMF effects on the endocrine system and the body as a whole. Published data about EMF effects on the cardiovascular system and blood are often contradictory, probably, because of different estimates of allowable limits recognized in various countries. It is hypothesized that circulatory changes are largely dependent on the central regulatory structures, particularly hypothalamus. White blood responses to the exposure, being most significant among hematological reactions, are also induced, to a certain extent, by regulatory mechanisms. The EMF effects may depend on the initial state and individual properties of the biological organism. It is postulated that the EMF effects on regulatory mechanisms may be related to primary disorders in cellular and mitochondrial membranes.

1349

[Effect of low-frequency pulse-modulated 460 MHz electromagnetic irradiation on Drosophila embryos]

Effect of electromagnetic radiation 460 MHz with 2.5-40 Hz pulse modulation rate on Drosophila embryos of 15 h 10 m age was studied. It was demonstrated that a 5-min irradiation with 0.12 W/kg average SAR (3 W/kg pulsed SAR) alters the Drosophila percentage of interrupted development. The effect strength depended on the modulation rate with a pronounced decrease at 10 and 16 Hz. A hypothesis about the presence of thermal and non-thermal mechanisms of action of pulse-modulated microwave radiation diversely effecting the embryos has been put forward and grounded.

1350

[Effect of magnetic fields on skin wound healing. Experimental study]

Although there are many publications on the usefulness of magneto-therapy, discrepancies exist about the utility of electromagnetic fields in skin wound healing. The objective of this work was to study the effect of electromagnetic fields on wound healing in rats. Thirty six male Wistar rats were used; a rectangular lesion was made in the back of each animal (4.2 cm x 2.3 cm). They were divided into 3 groups: group C (control) with sham treatment; group C50, treated with continuous electromagnetic fields of 5 mT (50 Gauss) and group P200, treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields of 20 mT (200 G). The treatments were of 30 minutes a day during 21 days. The corporal weights (Table 1) and the wound longitudinal and transversal maximal axis (Figures 1, 2) were weekly recorded and the data was evaluated by analysis of variance. On day 14, the P200 group showed the maximal longitudinal axis which was smaller than that of group C (p < 0.01). On day 21 in both treated groups the maximal longitudinal axis was smaller than that of group C (p < 0.01); besides the axis was smaller in the P200 group than in the C50 group (p < 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in the remaining data. The results showed a facilitating effect of electromagnetic fields on wound healing in rats. Pulsed electromagnetic fields seem to have a precocious and larger healing effect than continuous electromagnetic fields.

1352

[Effect of pulsating electromagnetic field therapy on cell volume and phagocytosis activity in multiple sclerosis and migraine]

PEMF treatment was studied in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with migraine. In both patients' groups a single treatment induced a significant rise of yeast particle uptake by blood granulocytes. The percentage of phagocytizing cells was increased in migraine patients only. In both patients' groups 20 PEMF treatments caused a reduction of particle uptake, whereas the percentage of phagocytizing cells remained unchanged. In migraine patients the opsonic capacity of serum and the mean cell volume of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes were initially reduced, but increased during the course of 20 PEMF treatments. The biphasic changes of cell volume and phagocytic activity are interpreted as a result of counter-regulation of the organism in response to the primary PEMF effect.

1354

[Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on orthodontic tooth movement through transmission electromicroscopy]

This experiment is to observe the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on orthodontic tooth movement of guinea pigs through transmission electron microscope (TEM). 14-days observations indicate that PEMF could accelerate the rate of orthodontic tooth movement as a result of the increase in quantity of active cell without changing the ultrastructures of cells and have no unfavorable effects on periodontal tissues.

1355

[Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on human periodontal ligament in vitro. Alterations of intracellular Ca2+]

The concept of orthodontic tooth movement is based on the hypothesis that teeth move as a result of the biological response of periodontal tissues to the mechanical forces applied. There is a widely held hypothesis that mechanical stress generates an electrical signal which sets in motion the subsequent events, as in bone exposed to mechanical forces electrical currents are produced affect bone growth and remodeling. This implies a transduction mechanism which translates the electrical signal into a biochemical message, recognizable by the cellular machine. This study is aimed at the identification of the message and the investigation of its control. In fact, the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on the intracellular second messenger, cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts (HPLF) was investigated. The resting intracellular ionized calcium concentration ([Ca+2]i) of HPLF cells was 232.7 +/- 25.0 nM, and with PEMF [Ca2+]i increased from 12 hrs to 499.0 +/- 115.5 nM up to 12 hrs, then reached to a steady level through 24 hrs. The PEMF were also found to decrease the responses towards epidermal growth factor (EGF) and serum, when the degree of response was based on the intracellular Ca2+ transient. These effects of PEMF were mimicked by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C. Some reports have suggested that fibroblasts of the periodontal ligament contain high alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity as much as osteoblast. Since similar results concerning the [Ca2+]i were obtained in osteoblast (OB)-like cells, this experiment also supports the hypothesis that fibroblasts of periodontal ligament have osteoblastic features.

1356

[Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on osteoblast-like cells. Alterations of intracellular Ca2+]

Low-energy electromagnetic fields pulsed at frequencies of 60-90 Hz significantly increase healing of chronic fracture nonunions in man. These fields are effective at tissue current levels as low as several orders of magnitude lower than those required for transmembrane depolarization of normal cells. In this study, the effects of PEMF on culture of rat osteoblast-like cells have been examined. The PEMF promoted the growth of these cells, were also found to increase the basal level of [Ca2+]i, and to decrease the responses towards epidermal growth factor (EGF) and serum, when the degree of response was based on the intracellular Ca2+ transient. These effects of PEMF were mimicked by 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C. Pretreatment of TPA enhanced the cell growth and suppressed the intracellular Ca2+ transient induced with EGF and then serum to about 170% of the control. Then, present study investigated how the PEMF and TPA modulate EGF receptors of these cells. Both PEMF and TPA decreased the level of EGF binding to these cells down to about 65% and 75%, respectively. Scatchard analysis revealed the decrease of EGF receptor without a significant change in the affinity for EGF by both. In conclusion, it was indicated that PEMF acts at cell membrane and modulates the receptors which is essential for cell growth and DNA synthesis.

1358

[Effect of steep pulsed electric fields on survival of tumour-bearing mice]

To investigate the lethal effect of steep pulsed electric fields (SPEFs) on cancer cells and the life-prolonging effect of SPEFs on the survival of tumour-bearing mice, this study was carried out with the use of SPEFs to treat 40 BALB/C mice inoculated by cervical cancer. The lethal effect on cancer cells and the life-prolonging effect on tumour-bearing mice were examined and compared between the experiment group and control group. The survival periods of the experiment group and control group were 52.05 days and 33.03 days, respectively. There was a significant difference in survival curve between the two groups. The results confirmed the inhibitiory effect and lethal effect of SPEFs on cancer cells. SPEFs can prolong the survival period of tumour-bearing mice.

1360

[Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in elderly hypertensive patients aging at different rates]

Effectiveness of general magnetotherapy was studied in 84 patients with essential hypertension and 36 patients with isolated systolic arterial hypertension of old age. It is thought necessary to determine biological age of the cardiovascular system in hypertensive patients over 60 years of age to specify indications and contraindications to physiotherapy.

1361

[Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study]

Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

1363

[Effects of 460 MHz microwave radiation on Drosophila embryos under raised temperature]

Combined effect of 460-MHz microwave irradiation and increased (up to 40 degrees C) temperature on Drosophila embryos of definite age was studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of 5-min exposures to non-modulated microwaves with 6 W/kg SAR accompanied with heating is only a little stronger than at normal temperature (24.5 degrees C). Irradiation with pulse-modulated microwaves with pulse repetition rates of 6, 10, 16, and 22 p.p.s. with average SAR of 0.12 W/kg (pulsed SAR 3 W/kg) combined with increased temperature caused some changes in PID dependent on the pulse rate. At 6 and 22 p.p.s, the increase in PID was close to that observed at normal temperature while at 10 and 16 p.p.s. the microwave irradiation did not produce any noticeable effect on development of the Drosophilas.

1364

[Effects of combined action of radon baths and transcranial magnetotherapy on cerebral circulation in patients in an intermediate period of a mild craniocerebral trauma]

The authors propose combined therapy improving cerebral circulation in patients in an intermediate period of a mild craniocerebral trauma. The combination consists of radon baths and transcranial magnetotherapy which raise blood volume filling, relieve vascular resistance, improve venous outflow.

1365

[Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phone on auditory and vestibular labyrinth]

BACKGROUND: It is the subject of this study to investigate the biological effect of the HF radiation produced by the Global System for Mobile Communications-( GSM)-mobile phone on the inner ear with its sensors of the vestibular and auditive systems. METHODS/PATIENTS: Thermographic investigations made on various model materials and on the human temporal bone should show whether mobile phone does induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system or not. We carried out video-nystagmographic recordings of 13 subjects, brainstem electric response audiometry of 24 ears, and recordings of distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions of 20 ears. All tests were made with and without a mobile phone in use. The data was then analyzed for variation patterns in the functional parameters of the hearing and balance system that are subject to the (non)existence of electromagnetic radiation from the mobile phone. RESULTS: The thermographic investigations suggest that the mobile phone does not induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system. Video-nystagmographic recordings under field effect do not furnish any indication of vestibular reactions generated by field effects. Compared with the recording without field, the brainstem electric response audiometry under field effect did not reveal any changes of the parameters investigated, i. e. absolute latency of the peaks I, III, V and the interpeak latency between the peaks I and V. The distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions do not indicate, comparing the three measuring situations, i. e. before field effect, pulsed field and continuous field, any possible impacts of the HF field on the spectrum or levels of emissions for none of the probands. CONCLUSION: The investigations made show that the electromagnetic fields generated in using the mobile phone do not have an effect on the inner ear and auditive system to the colliculus inferior in the brainstem and on the vestibular receptors in the inner ear and the vestibular system.

1366

[Effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field on different-derived osteoblast-like cells]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. METHODS: The MC3T3-E1 cell and the primary osteoblast cell derived from 2-day-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rat calvaria were exposed to PEMF with a magnetic flux density of 1.55 mT at 48 Hz for 24 or 48 h. MTS was applied to analyze cell proliferation and flow cytometry to detect cell cycle. The intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by colorimetry. RESULTS: PEMF of 1.55 mT at 48 Hz decreased significantly the cell percentage of S or G(2)M phase (P < 0.05), but did not affect cell number of MC3T3-E1 cells. Although the number of the primary osteoblast cells did not alter by MTS assay after exposure to PEMF for 24 h continuously, the cell percentage of G(2)M phase increased significantly (P < 0.01). When the culture time extended to 48 h, the cell number increased greatly (P < 0.01) and the cell percentage of G(2)M phase decreased significantly despite of the exposure type (P < 0.01). After the primary osteoblast cells were exposed to PEMF for 24 h continuously, the ALP activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas it increased significantly after exposure to PEMF for 48 h continuously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PEMF of 1.55 mT at 48 Hz does not affect proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell, but it promotes proliferation of primary osteoblast cell, inhibits differentiation at proliferation stage and promotes differentiation at differentiation stage of primary osteoblast cell.

1367

[Effects of low frequency pulsed electric field on insulin studied by fluorescent spectrum]

Insulin, an intercellular signal molecular, plays a critical role in transferring life information. The studies on effects of pulsed electric fields on insulin molecular are meaningful for explaining the mechanism of biological effects of electromagnetic fields. The experiment results demonstrate that the conformation of insulin molecular has been altered by electric fields exposure for 30 minutes or by heat exposure for 50 hours. The results suggest that pulsed electric field exposure as heat exposure will after conformation of insulin molecular by breaking some hydrogen bonds and recombining another hydrogen bonds. The intercellular signal molecular may be an important target of electromagnetic fields.

1368

[Effects of low frequency pulsed magnetic field on the proliferation and differentiation of HepG2 cells]

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low frequency pulsed magnetic field on the proliferation and differentiation of HepG2 cells. METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium (MTS) colorimetry method and ELISA assay of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were used to determine the cell proliferation and differentiation after the cells were exposed to pulsed magnetic fields with different frequency but the same field intensity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cell proliferation between sham and treated groups exposed to the field of 80 Hz, 1.55 mT for 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 h (P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in cell proliferation and AFP secretion between sham and treated groups exposed to 16 Hz, 1.55 mT pulsed magnetic fields for 1, 4, 8, 24 h (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There were no "window effects" found in HepG2 cells proliferation or AFP secretion at 16 Hz and 80 Hz pulsed magnetic fields.

1369

[Effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on the proliferation of chondrocytes]

Chondrocytes isolated from the human cartilage of 5 patients between the ages 23 and 56 were exposed to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (9 mT; 3 Hz) for a daily period of 60 minutes on 5 consecutive days and then every 48 hours for the next 6 days (11 days in total). Cell viability was estimated using trypan blue exclusion and proliferation was estimated by counting the cells in a haemacytometer. Cell morphology was compared for control purposes by directly observing the cells under a light microscope after staining cells in a haematoxylin and eosin solution. The results were statistically analysed and compared to a control sample. Data revealed that exposing cells isolated from human cartilage to pulsed electromagnetic fields (9 mT; 3 Hz) led to a significantly higher number of cells in comparison to the control sample. Among the cells from the 5 patients, growth varied between 1.1 to 3.0 folds compared to the control sample. The difference in cell viability between the exposed cells and the control sample was, however, not significant. Some morphological variations were revealed when the cells were observed under a light microscope. The exposed cells were thinner and longer than the control cells which were large and flat. The exposed cells tended to grow in a more uniform direction while the control cells grew in all directions. These differences in morphology and growth may be related to the higher density of the exposed cells.

1371

[Effects of steep pulsed electric fields on cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle]

To assess study the cytocidal and inhibitory effects of steep pulsed electric fields (SPEFs) on ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, the cancer cell suspension was treated by SPEFs with different parameters (frequency, pulse duration, peak value of voltage). Viability rate and growth curves of two test groups (high dosage and low dosage of SPEFs) and one control group were also measured. The DNA contents and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Different dosing levels of SPEFs exerted obviously different effects on cancer cell viability. With the enhancement of each pulse parameter, the viability rate was promoted and the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of treated cells was more evident. The cells exposed to SPEFs grew slower than the control. The ratio of S+G2/M phase cells was decreased, which restrained the DNA synthesis and division, but the ratio of G0/G1 phase cells was increased in the treated groups. It was also indicated that the SPEFs blocked the cell transition from G0/G1 phase to S+G2/M phase. There was a significant difference in cell cycle between treated group and control group (P<0.01). Lethal effects of SPEFs were represented by inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation at the cell level and by influencing the cell cycle at the DNA level.

1372

[Effects of the PEMFs of different intensity on BMD and biomechanical properties of rabbits' femur]

The effects of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) of different intensity on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of rabbits' femur had been studied. Twenty-seven female white big ear rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. The magnetic groups were fed in 15 Hz PEMFs, which pulse duration was set to be 5 ms (6 h x d(-1)), the magnetic intensity was 10 x 10(-4) T and the other was 20 x 10(-4) T. Control group were just fed in coils, and the instrument of PEMFs was powered off. After six weeks, by examine BMD and biomechanical properties of the rabbits' femur, the effects of these PEMFs were studied. Compared with control group, the values of BMD, maximum load and structural rigidity of magnetic group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). In addition, there was significant increase in values of BMD and structural rigidity in group 10 x 10(-4) T in comparison with group 20 x 10(-4) T (P < 0.05). PEMFs is effective in improving BMD and biomechanical properties. The experiment indicated that there was evident "window-effect" during the treatment by PEMFs. It is favorable to the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

1373

[Effects of therapeutic complexes including balneoradonokinesitherapy, electromyostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy on regional blood flow in patients with postrraumatic gonarthritis]

Balneoradonokinesitherapy alone and its combination with electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy were used for the treatment of regional blood flow disorders in 76 patients with posttraumatic gonarthritis. Balneoradonokinesitherapy in combination with electromyostimulation improved blood circulation. When low-frequency magnetotherapy was added to the latter complex, the regress of regional blood flow disorders of a damaged extremity was most significant.

1374

[Effects of transcranial magnetotherapy on electroencephalographic parameters in females with overactive urinary bladder]

Urodynamic parameters and bioelectric brain activity were studied in 30 females aged 24-66 years with overactive bladder (OAB) before and after transcranial magnetotherapy. It was found that OAB patients have disorders of bioelectric brain activity by two types of EEG patterns (I.A. Svyatogor classification)--thalamic and stem, Patients with thalamic type EEG benefit more from magnetotherapy higher efficacy of which manifests with regress of clinical symptoms and urodynamic improvement.

1375

[Efficacy of dynamic magnetotherapy with modulation frequency 10Hz in the complex of spa rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy]

Two groups of children with cerebral paralysis received combined therapy. Treatment of one of the groups included a course of magnetotherapy (AMO-ATOS unit, 10 Hz) according to the suboccipital-lumbar method, the other group was control (no magnetotherapy). The study of cliniconeurophysiological indices showed significantly higher efficacy of the therapeutic complex with a course of magnetotherapy. The highest beneficial effect was observed on bioelectrogenesis of the brain, rheoencephalographic parameters and clinical manifestation of muscular spasticity.

1376

[Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age]

Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma.

1379

[Electrical and electromagnetic stimulation of bone healing]

The presented review analyzes the problem of the effect of electric current and electromagnetic fields on bone healing. The findings of the cited papers indicate that electronegativity, osteoblastic activity and bone formation fall within one group, while electropositivity, osteoclasia and resorption constitute another group. Stimulation is performed surgically by implanted electrodes or by current induction in the bone. Evidence on the effect of direct electric stimulation and pulsed magnetic filds in speeding up the process of bone healing fails to be convincing. However, the beneficial influence of electromagnetotherapy on the healing of soft tissues has been confirmed and is to be ascribed t its antiedematous, analgesic and antiinflammatory effect.

1380

[Electrically induced osteogenesis. II. Experimental studies]

The paper presents the possibilities to induce osteogenesis using different types of electrical current. The direct current may be used with invasive or semi-invasive methods. Electrodes are placed internally, near the bone. Experiments showed that the optimum stimulation is achieved with current between 5 and 20 microamperes. The capacitive current is able to induce osteogenesis. The electrodes are placed externally; between the electrodes there is an electric field with the value ranged 1-10 millivolts/cm. The method of pulsed electromagnetic fields is based on the field produced by a coil placed externally. The magnetic field range between 0, 1 and 20 gauss. This is the most appreciate method because is noninvasive and offered the best experimental results.

1381

[Electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity]

The development of industry, particularly of new technologies in communication systems, gives rise to the number and diversty of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in the environment. These sources, including power-frequent, radiofrequent and microwaves, make human life richer, safer and easier. But at the same time, there is growing concern about possible health risks connected with EMF exposure. An increasing number of persons have recently reported on a variety of health problems induced, in their opinion, by exposure to EMF. It is important to note that EMF levels to which these individuals are exposed are generally well below the recommended exposure limits and are certainly far below those known to produce any adverse effects. These persons call themselves "electromagnetic hypersensitivity individuals" And complain about experiencing various types of non-specific symptoms, including dermatological, neurological and vegetative. In the present paper, the problem of electromagnetic hypersensitivity phenomenon is discussed based on the recently published literature.

1382

[Electromagnetic therapy after phlebectomy]

Comparative analysis of outpatient treatment by means of pulsed complexly-modulated electromagnetic field (PCMEMF) applied after phlebectomy in 30 patients with varicosity of the lower limbs showed the expediency of this type of treatment in the postoperative period. Exposure of the operated on limb to PCMEMF raises the efficacy of the rehabilitation measures and reduces the terms of the patients' temporary incapacity.

1383

[Electrophysical effects in combined treatment of neurosensory hypoacusis]

The authors consider different methods of electrobiophysical impacts on the body in the treatment of neurosensory hypoacusis: laser beam, laser puncture, electrostimulation, magnetotherapy, magnetolasertherapy, electrophoresis, etc. These methods find more and more intensive application in modern medicine. Further success of physiotherapy for neurosensory hypoacusis depends on adequate knowledge about mechanisms of action of each physical method used and introduction of novel techniques.

1384

[ELEMAGS apparatus and clinical experience in its use in the treatment of children with hypoacusis and otalgia]

To enhance effectiveness of magnetotherapy in the treatment of otic diseases the authors propose to use impulse low-frequency electromagnetic field in combination with constant magnetic field. ELEMAGS equipment based on the above principles is introduced to treat cochlear neuritis and neurosensory hypoacusis in children.

1385

[Equipment design for magnetic therapy and "Polus" devices]

Low-frequency magnetotherapy is among the most original therapeutical techniques since it is effective in treating most diseases and has practically no contraindications. Due to atraumaticity of a low-frequency electromagnetic field, the application of magnetotherapy is indicated in geriatric care, in particular. The VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company has developed a family of the Polyus system equipment for magnetotherapy, whereby all the well-known therapeutical procedures of low-frequency magnetotherapy can be performed. The magnetotherapeutic room equipped with Polyus-2D, Polyus-3, and Polyus-4 ensures a complete set of magneto-therapeutical exposure. The rooms are supplied by the VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company.

1386

[Evaluation of a DC pulsed magnetic tracking system in neurosurgical navigation: technique, accuracies, and influencing factors]

Navigation systems are useful instruments in cranial neurosurgery. For specification of position, so-called sensor-based navigation techniques use: (a) a signal emitter that generates a defined electromagnetic field in the area of the operation site; and (b) small sensors that detect the position of various operating instruments in the electromagnetic field. For a long time, owing to a lack of clinical data and long-term studies, electromagnetic systems have been regarded as error-prone and imprecise. With the development of a pulsed direct current (DC) technique, precision levels can now be reached that are comparable with those of established optical and mechanical measuring procedures. However, it must be noted that the influence on the measuring accuracy within the operating field increases with increasing susceptibility of the various metals used in the operating theatre (titanium

1387

[Evidences of physical agents action on bone metabolism and their potential clinical use]

The action of physical agents such as low level laser therapy, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and electrical and electromagnetic fields on bone have been often studied, showing that they are able to promote osteogenesis, accelerate fracture consolidation and augment bone mass. The use of these therapeutic modalities was first based on the finding that bone is a piezoelectric material, that means it can generate polarization when deformed, transforming mechanical energy into electric energy, and this has widen therapeutic possibilities to bony tissue. The present work aims to present evidences of physiologic effects and mechanisms of action of these physical agents on bone metabolism, based on articles published in international scientific literature.

1389

[Experiment and analyse on the effect of magnetic nanoparticles upon relaxation time of proton in molecular recognition by MRI]

To research on the effect of three different magnetic nanoparticles upon relaxation time of proton. The detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates that there is the effect of marked difference to right control experiment and to analyze the difference from theory. The result discloses that will be able to perform the experiment of molecular recognition using magnetic nanoparticles later.

1391

[Experimental study of the lethal effects of steep pulsed electric field on cancer cells in BALB/c mice]

This study was conducted to observe the lethal effects of steep pulsed electric field(SPEF) on the cancerous squamous cells in BALB/c mice. Female mice were inoculated with the solution of cervical cancer cells line. The tumor-bearing mice of the experiment group were exposed to SPEF. Then, the histomorphological changes were examined and compared between experiment group and control group. The histological and antitumor assay showed that SPEF could selectively injure tumor cells and inhibit cell proliferation. After treatment, pyknosis, karyoclasis and karyolysis of cancer cells were observed under light and electron mircroscope. More serious changes appeared some days later. These results indicate that SPEF have lethal effects on cervical cancer. It may prolong the survival period of tumor-bearing mice.

1392

[Experimental study on the disinfection of wastewater by swept pulsed electromagnetic field]

In this paper, an applicable swept pulsed equipment was developed to treat the domestic wastewater and the effect of swept pulsed electromagnetic field on disinfection was studied. It was found that the effect was obvious and the disinfection performance of electromagnetic field was increased with the increasing of the pH, the temperature, the treatment time and the bactericidal concentration. The experimental results showed that the amounts of total bacterium and coliform per milliliter were decreased from 7.2 x 10(6) to 2.2 x 10(4) and from 9.2 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 10(4) respectively after the treatment period of 4 h when the temperature was 25 degrees C and pH 9.0. Corresponding, the removal efficiency of total bacterium were 99.7% and 96.2%.

1393

[External interference of cardiac pacemakers (author's transl)]

The pacemaker patient is faced with potential origins of interference to the pacemaker function in his daily life, at his working place and during medical-therapeutic interventions. Technical faults in the electronic circuit induced by external sources can be neglected. Malfunctions of synchronized cardiac pacemakers may occur in the presence of electrical signals similar to the intracardiac ECG (e.g. nerve stimulators) or by the influence of high energy electrical field (e.g. pulsed electromagnetic fields). Technical improvements like metalshielding of the unit, electronic filtering components and automatic conversion to fixed rate stimulation increase the reliability to a high degree.

1395

[Flat-detector CT-based electromagnetic navigation]

Flat-detector CT coupled to an angiography device provides an imaging technique for interventions which can be used for electromagnetically navigated percutaneous punctures. This report explains the functionality of an electromagnetic navigation system and describes the course of an electromagnetically navigated puncture and the capabilities of such a system in the clinical routine.

1399

[Histochemical study of the cholinesterase activity in the structures of the rat heart normally and during exposure to a pulsed electromagnetic field]

Histotopography and activity of true and false cholinesterases in the non-inbred white rat hearts, normal and at the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (80 kA/m) have been demonstrated by Karnovsky-Roots histochemical method. It has been stated that a single 6 hours' application of the pulsed electromagnetic field results in an increased cholinesterase activity in all cardiac structures, besides neurocytes. If the application is continued, cholinesterase activity is progressively decreasing and its minimum is observed on the 10th day of the stimulation. From the 15th day on, increasing enzymatic activities are observed, various for different enzymes: that of acetylcholinesterase even by the 30th day of the stimulation by the magnetic field does not reach the normal level, while that of cholinesterase exceeds this level. Mast cells are noted to appear along the cholinergic neural fibres. A suggestion is made on possible exchange between them by mediator acetylcholine. Electrocardiographic data have demonstrated that certain correlation exists between acetylcholinesterase activity and the cardiac function.

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